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Phonics Exam1

Phonics Chapters 1-3

Basal-Reader Approach to Reading Instruction Most widely used: 75-85% of schools Predetermined skills sequence Unit themes Teachers have guided lesson plans Students have workbooks Teachers can add materials Can relate to other content areas Assessment Tests
Literature-Based Approach to Reading Instruction Highly individualistic - motivates students Requires teacher initiative Small reading-response groups Provides reading or discussion prompts Maintain individual response logs/journals End-of-book activities Informal teacher observations (to assess)
Language-Based Approach to Reading Instruction Student-led Active and authentic learning experiences Teacher-organized Students immersed in language Skills developed: phonics, word analysis, comprehension, vocabulary, written expression, literature, and study skills Informal observations Library
Technology-Based Approach to Reading Instruction Supplementary to other methods Wide variety of software programs for special instruction in word identification, vocabulary, and comprehension development Skill-and-drill games for some students with special needs
Influential Teacher TEACH Teaching: Quality of Instruction Excitement: Personal Characteristics Attitude: Attitude toward Subject Caring: Understanding of Learner Potential Helping: Life Adjustment
What were the two materials initially used by the colonists that were brought from England? The Bible and the Hornbook
Who was the settler in Jamestown who played a major role in its eventual success? John Rolfe
What were the requirements placed on education in the colonies after the Deluder Satan Law was passed? If a town had over 50 families, the town was required to hire a school teacher.
What was the main reason children learned to read and write in the 1600s? To be able to read the Bible
The battledore was a progression of what previous invention? The Hornbook
How many sections of alphabet and phonics lessons did the battledore contain? 3
Who wrote A New Guide to the English Tongue? Thomas Dilworth
What was the more common name given to the American Spelling Book and how did it get this name? The Blueback Speller, because of its blue cover
True or False: The Elocution Era was a time when students memorized things in their reader and recited them to the class True
True or False: The syllabary used numbers instead of letters False
What did the New England Primer use as instructional text? Structured Sentences
Who was president when the land was acquired? Thomas Jefferson
How much did the total come to for the purchase? 15 million
When was the first independent black denomination church formed? 1816
How many members does the black denomination now have? 3.5 million
True or False: The cotton gin had no effect on the cotton industry in the United States False
True or False: The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney? True
_______have had a tremendouse environmental impact, not only because of the electricity that they use directly, but also because of the human activity that they make possible. Light Bulbs
What are the key developments of the American Industrial Revolution? The expansion of transportation, the effective harnessing of electricity, and improvements to industrial processes
True or False: Jim Crow laws mandated racial segregation in all public facilities except restrooms, transportation, and schools False
The McGuffey Eclectic Readers were filled with _______ lessons, including kindness to animals, adherence to Christian principles, good manners, allegiance to country, and consideration of others. Moral
in 1921, "___________" is published as a list of the most common 10,000 words in the English language. "The Teacher's Word Book"
In 1925, New York's Board of Education was the first to pipe lessons to schools through _______. Radio Stations
In 1950, the ____________ was invented to help students who learn language best through repetition and drills. Language-Lab handset
What method in Basal reading did Flesch see as faulty due to a lack of word understanding and comprehension? Look-say method and sight words
True or False: Whole language is a series built on the understanding of children teaching themselves. True
True or False: Today most schools focus on a reading-only learning method. False
In studies of influential teachers by Ruddell and Ker: high and low achievers perceived their teachers in much the same way
According to the NAEP study, what is the relationship between students' interest in reading and their age? Students read less as they get older
The literature-based approach to reading instruction requires strong commitment and knowledge on the part of the teacher because: it takes much awareness to select materials and instructional activities which are highly individualized, and assessments are based on informal observations made by the teacher
An understanding of the relationships between theory and practice is: Important because we operate on the basis of our assumptions about teaching, learning, and children
Mrs. Burke's quality of reading instruction made her influential because: she engages students in intellectual discovery
According to the opening chapter scenario, Joyce probably used what instructional approach to reading? literature-based
Prephonemic Spelling A spelling pattern typical of kindergartners and many first graders in which letters and letter-like forms are arranged in horizontal lines, indicating awareness that words are made from letters.
Children's control over syntactic structures . . . extends to the elementary school years.
The strongest motivating factor in acquiring new vocabulary for young children is driven by . . . intellectual curiosity, social use of language, and the sound of a word.
Some characteristics of invented spelling: It is systematic, and it is rule-governed. Children do NOT only invent spellings in K & 1st Grade
Which sounds do children tend to acquire first? Vowel sounds
How does content reading differ from story reading? The structure differs
What is an example of metacognition? Self-monitoring as we read
Vygotsky would agree that children who can comprehend something meaningful from The Wimmy Wuggen and the Moggy Tor do so because . . . The interaction and modeling of more competent peers has enabled them to acquire the cuing strategies and language concepts to create meaning from new experiences
Emergent Literacy Consists of early reading and writing processes and behaviors that mark the beginning of the development of standard reading and writing. Understanding this progression is crucial for the teacher to be able to effectively facilitate this development.
6 Expert Reading Competencies 1. Word Identification 2. Meaning Clues 3. Story Schema 4. Motivation 5. Hypothesizing 6. Comprehension Strategies
Expert Reading Competency: Word Identification move left to right across the page, use knowledge of letter-sound and letter pattern relationships, recognize spelling patterns, capital letters, punctuation, sentence structure, automatic for the most part
Expert Reading Competency: Meaning Clues 2 types: relational meanings ('a' and 'the' - a noun follows, 'ed' and 'ing' - a verb) and sentence context (knowledge of syntax - sentence structure)
Expert Reading Competency: Story Schema The construction of what a story is and how a story narrative is organized
Expert Reading Competency: Motivation Internal - curiosity; external - outside expectations by instructor, peers, parents, etc. Both contribute to the persistence of understanding and meaning
Expert Reading Competency: Hypothesizing By using word, sentence, and story structure, the reader is able to reach meaningful closure and arrive at a conclusion about the story
Expert Reading Competency: Comprehension Strategies Different levels of comprehension processing and thinking (from simple recall to high level inferences); "correctness" is monitored using background knowledge, text meaning, reading objectives, and expected outcome
Optimal Conditions for Literacy (I) 1. Children are immersed in language 2. Children and teachers are actively involved in meaningful demonstrations of language in action 3. Language is used for real-life purposes 4. Children assume responsibility for their own learning
Optimal Conditions for Literacy (II) 5. Adults hold expectations that all children will learn 6. Approximation is encouraged 7. Ongoing feedback is given to the learner
Language of Instruction Direction words Ordering words Color words Geometric shape words instructional directions Feeling and Sensory-based words Group Participation, Attention, and Task Sequencing Directions
Skill Sequence for Phonemic Awareness Identify word unit Identify syllable unit Identify rhyme Identify phoneme
Teaching Letter Recognition 1. Teach the letter names first 2. Use highly motivation activities with rhyme, rhythm, and song - connect names with letters 3. Help children avoid confusing letter names & sounds by teaching letter-sound relationship after solid letter name familiarit
Identifying letters - Children look at letter: orientation, line segments, line curves (individual features of the letter)
Criteria for Alphabet Books colorful, upper and lower case letters, interesting illustrations, develops initial consonant sound Help develop letter-name knowledge Help make connections between letters and sounds
Influential Teacher A teacher at any grade level who has a major impact on a student's academic achievement or personal development
Literacy The knowledge and skills necessary to read and write
NAEP National Assessment of Educational Progress - studies nationwide assessment of students in grades 4, 8, and 12 in reading and content areas
Basal Reader Approach a framework and materials for literacy instruction based on graded readers and a predetermined scope and sequence of skills
Literature-Based Approach a framework and materials for literacy instruction based on exposure to literature with strong emphasis on child-development goals
Language-Based Approach a framework and materials for integrated literacy instruction based on developmentally appropriate, active, authentic learning experiences
Hornbook a wooden board with text protected by a transparent sheet of animal horn
New England Primer the first colonial schoolbook, originally published about 1690
McGuffey Eclectic Readers a series of graded readers based on vocabulary and moral teachings, originally published in 1836
Dick and Jane Readers a series of graded readers based on child development and social relevance, originally published in the early 1930s
Expert Reader Competencies (definition) knowledge and processing skills needed for reading fluency and comprehension
Meaning Clues relational and contextual clues to the meaning of the text
Story Schema concept of what a story is and how a story narrative is organized
Phonological System units of sounds produced in a language
Grammar language factors such as rules of language, consistent use of word forms and structures
Syntax sentence structures and patterns
Telegraphic Speech a syntactic pattern in early oral language development in which pivot and remainder words are used to convey meaning
Syntactical Control development of complexity in sentence construction and use
Invented Spelling spelling in which children systematically apply their own spelling rules for the purpose of connecting speech to print
Phonemic Spelling spelling in which letters and letter-like forms appear in short consonant strings
Letter-Name Spelling spelling in which letters' names represent sounds
Transitional Spelling spelling close to conventional spelling but less fluent; long and short vowel sounds represented correctly
Derivational Spelling Spelling close to conventional spelling but less sophisticated; rule-governed spelling patterns for vowel marking and consonant doubling
Word Identification Skills Procedures for deciphering decoding printed words into oral utterances
Phonics a word identification skill based on letter-sound and letter pattern/sound pattern relationships
Phonemes discrete units of sound
Phonemic Segmentation the process of separating the units of sound, or phonemes, in spoken words; an important prerequisite for matching specific phonemes with specific letters in printed forms
Metacognitive Awareness awareness and control of thought processes; the ability to systematically apply strategies and monitor comprehension
Expository Text text, often found in content areas, whose organization pattern differs from that of narrative text
Internal Motivation acting on the basis of a self-selected purpose or learning objective
External Motivation acting on the basis of a purpose or objective selected by another
Language Functions purposes and uses of literacy abilities
Sociocognitive Theory A theory that social interactions and cognitive development jointly influence language and literacy learning
Developmentally Appropriate Practice matching instruction to children's stages of cognitive development
Schema Theory a theory that knowledge is organized, stored in memory, and used to make sense of the world
Cognitive Flexibility a theory that prior knowledge can be adapted, or used in a novel and creative way, to solve new problems
Meaning Negotiation and interactive process which integrates the background knowledge of the teacher, the student, and the classroom community to reach a shared understanding of a text (or classroom event)
Wordless Storybook a book in which illustrations alone tell a story
Picture Storybook a book in which illustrations and text tell a story that would be incomplete without the pictures
Big Book a giant-sized re-production of a standard-sized storybook
Phonemic Awareness the understanding that spoken words are composed of sounds
Onset in a syllable, the beginning sound, usually an initial consonant
Rime in a syllable, the ending sound, usually a vowel and a consonant
Language-Experience Story a chronological written record of students' language experiences
Word Banks children's collections of written words they have encountered
Shared Book Experience a literature-based strategy for teaching story concepts to groups of students
Predictable Books storybooks that develop a repeating, or predictable, pattern
Directed Listening-Thinking Activity an instructional strategy for developing story sense through predictions and inferences
Assessment Evaluating students' progress as a guide to instructional planning
Created by: zagabeenie