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Teas Science Gloss

Nursing Teas Test Science Glossary Flashcards

Acetylcholine chemical transmitter substance released by some nerve endings
Acid a compound that yields H+ ions in solution or a solution with the concentration of H+ exceeding OH-
Acid-base balance situation in which the pH of the blood is maintained between 7.35 and 7.45
Actinides the row of elements below the periodic table, from thorium to lawrencium
Action potential a large transient depolarization event, including polarity reversal, that is conducted along the membrane of a muscle cell or a nerve fiber
Active transport membrane transport processes for which ATP is provided (solute pumping and endocytosis)
Adaptation receive, interpret, and respond to internal and external stimuli via the nervous system
Adhesion molecular attraction between dissimilar molecules, attraction between water molecules and molecules that make up the inside of a xylem tube
Andrenergic Fibers nerve fibers that release norepinephrine
Aerobic in the presence of oxygen
Afferent (sensory) nerve nerve that contains processes of sensory neurons and carries nerve impulses to the central nervous system
Agglutination clumping of (foreign) cells, induced by crosslinking of antigen-antibody complexes
Agonist muscle that bears the major responsibility for effecting a particular movement, a prime mover
Alkali metals the column of elements from lithium to francium
Allele any of the alternative forms of a gene
Allergy (hypersensitivity) overzealous immune response to an otherwise harmless antigen
Alpha particle a cluster of 2 protons and 2 neutrons emitted from a nucleus in one type of radioactivity
Amnion fetal membrane that forms a fluid-filled sac around the emrbyo
Anabolism energy-requiring building phase of metabolism in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex substances
Anaerobic without the presence of oxygen
Androgen a hormone that controls male secondary sex characteristics, such as testosterone
Anion an atom or molecule with a negative charge
Anode the negative electrode at which oxidation occurs
Antibody a protein molecule that is released by a plasma cell (a daughter cell of an activated B lymphocyte) and that binds specifically to an antigen, an immunoglobulin
Aqueous refers to solution with water as teh solvent
Arteries blood vessels that conduct blood away from the heart and into circulation
Articulation (joint) the junction of two or more bones
Asexual reproduction method of reproducing a new organism from only one parent by means of mitosis
Atom the smallest amount of an element; a nucleus containing protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons
Atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of the chemical element
Atomic weight the weight in grams of one mole of the chemical element; approximately the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Atrophy reduction in size or wasting away of an organ or cell resulting from disease or lack of use
Avogadro's Law equal volumes of gases contain the same number of molecules
Axon neuron process that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body; efferent process; the conducting portion of a nerve cell
Bactericidal able to kill bacteria
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) rate at which energy is expended (heat produced) by the body per unit of time under controlled (basal) conditions: 12 hours after a meal, at rest
Base a compound that yields OH- ions in solution or a solution with the concentration of OH- exceeding H+
Beta particle an electron emitted from a nucleus in one type of radioactivity
Blood pressure force exerted by blood against a unit area of the blood vessel walls; differences in blood pressure between different areas of the circulation provide the driving force for blood circulation
Boiling point the temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas
Bowman's capsule a network of capillaries encased in a membrane in the kidney for purpose of filtration
Boyle's Law the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure
Bronchioles the branching air passageways inside the lungs
Buffer a chemical substance or system that minimizes changes in pH by releasing or binding hydrogen ions
Calorie a unit of energy, equal to 4.184 joules; the energy required to increase the temperature of 1.0 g of water by one degree Celcius
Capillary action the rising of a liquid in a small tube because of adhesive and cohesive forces
Carbohydrate organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The hydrogen-to-oxygen ration is 2:1
Catalyst a chemical that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without itself
Cathode the positive electrode at which reduction occurs
Cation an atom or molecule with a positive charge
Charles's Law the volume of a gas varies directly with temperature
Chlorophyll green plant pigment that is found in chloroplast and is necessary for photosynthesis
Chloroplast plant cell structures containing light-sensitive chlorophyll
Circulation transporting oxygen and other nutrients to the tissues via cardiovascular system
Clone descendants of a single cell
Coenzyme nonprotein substance associated with and activating an enzyme, typically a vitamin
Cohesion attraction between similar molecules (attraction between two water molecules)
Colloid suspension that does not separate on standing
Collodial osmotic pressure pressure created in a fluid by large non-diffusible molecules, such as plasma proteins, that are prevented from moving through a (capillary) membrane, such substances tend to draw water to them
Colony group of bacteria cells
Complemental air amount of air that can be forefully inhaled
Compound a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements
Concentration the relative abundance of a solute in a solution
Corticosteroids steroid hormones released by the adrenal cortex
Cotyledon seed leaf that stores food for a plant embryo of seed plants
Covalent bond atoms linked together by sharing valance electrons
Cranial nerves 12 nerve pairs that arise from the brain
Culture medium specially prepared nutritious substance used to grow experimental organisms
Cytoplasm the cellular material surrounding the nucleus and enclosed by the plasma membrane
Decomposition a chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler compounds or elements
Dehydrate to lose water
Dendrite branching neurons that transmit the nerve impulse toward the cell body
Disaccharide a sugar formed by the combination of two simple sugar molecules
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) a nucleic acid found in all living cells which carries the organism's hereditary information
DNA replication the process that occurs before cell division and insures that all daughter calls have identical genes
Dominant traits occur when one allele masks or suppresses the expression of its partner
Ecosystem the interactive living organisms with their environment
Electrode a conducting substance that connects an electrolyte to an external circuit
Electron a light subatomic particle with negative charge; found in orbitals surrounding an atomic nucleus
Element a substance that cannot be decomposed by ordinary chemical means; each chemical element is characterized by the number of protons in the nucleus
Elimination removing metabolic wastes from the body via renal system
Embryo early development of an animal or plant after fertilization, cylindrical structure within a seed that develops into a plant
Emulsion suspension of two liquids which are incapable of mixing or attaining homogeneity
Endocrine glands ductless glands that empty their hormonal products directly into the blood
Endocrine system body system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones
Energy the concept of motion or heat
Enzyme protein catalyst; chemical that changes the rate of a chemical reaction in living tissue without itself being chemically altered
Equilibrium a balanced condition resulting from two opposing reactions
Erythrocytes red blood cells
Estrogen hormones that stimulate female secondary sex characteristics, female sex hormones
Expiration process of breathing out
Extracellular fluid internal fluid located outside cells
Faraday's Laws two laws of electrolysis relating the amount of substance to the quantity of electric charge
Fascia layers of fibrous tissue covering and separating muscle
Fermentation release of energy from sugar without the use of oxygen, anaerobic respiration
Fertilization fusion of the sperm and egg nuclei
Fetus developmental stage extending from the 9th week of development to birth
Fibrinogen a blood protein that is converted to fibrin (a white,insoluble protein) during blood clotting
Filtrate liquid that passes through the pores in a filter
Follicle ovarian structure consisting of a developing egge surrounded by one or more layers of follicle cells, colloid-containing structure of the thyroid gland
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) hormone produced by the anterior pituitary that stimulates ovarian follicle production in females and sperm production in males
Free energy the thermodynamic quantity measuring the tendency of a reaction to proceed, also called Gibbs free energy
Freezing point the temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid
Fulcrum the fixed point on which a lever moves when a fore is applied
Gamete sex or germ cell
Genetic code the rules by which the base sequence of a DNA gene is translated into protein structures (amino acid sequence)
Genome the complete set of chromosomes derived from on parent, the haploid genome, or the two sets of chromosomes, the diploid genome
Genotype one's genetic makeup or genes
Germinate develop fro a seed into a plant
Glucose one of the simplest and most important sugars which is the basic transportable form of fuel for living organisms
Golgi apparatus membranous system close to the cell nucleus that packages protein secretions for export, packages enzymes into the lysosomes for cellular use, and modifies proteins destined to become part of cellular membranes
Gram formula weight an amount of a substance equal in grams to the sum of the atomic weights
Gray matter neural tissue of the brain and spinal cord that contains nerve-cell bodies as well as nerve fibers; is a brownish gray color
Halogens the column of the elements from fluorine to astatine
Heat capacity the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of a substance by one degree Celsius or Kelvin
Hemoglobin oxygen-transporting component of erythrocytes
Hepatic (portal) system circulation in which the hepatic portal vein carries dissolved nutrients to the liver tissues for processing
Homeostasis ability of a cell to regulate a stable internal environment by controlling the passage of fluids into and out of the cell
Hormones steroidal or amino acid-based molecules released to the blood that act as chemical messengers to regulate specific body functions
Hydrocarbon an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
Hypertension high blood pressure
Hypertonic solution solution having a lower water concentration than a solution to which it is compared
Hypotension low blood pressure
Hypotnoic solution solution having a higher water concentration than a solution to which it is compared
Immune system a functional system whose components attack foreign substances or prevent their entry into the body
In vitro in a test tube, glass, or artificial environment
Inert gases the column of elements from helium to radon, also called noble gases
inflammation a nonspecific defensive response of the body to tissue injury, including dilation of blood vessels and an increase in vessel permeability, indicated by redness, heat, swelling, and pain
Inoculation placement of bacteria onto a culture medium
Inspiration process of breathing in
Ion an atom with an electric charge due to gain or loss of electrons
Ionization adding or subtracting electrons from an atom, alternatively, the dissociation of a solute into ions
Isomers several molecules with the same composition but different structures
Isotonic solution a solution with a concentration of a nonpenetrating solutes equal to that found in the reference cell
Isotope a variation of an element characterized by a specific number of neutrons in the nucleus
Joule a unit of energy equal to 0.239 calorie
Krebs cycle aerobic metabolic pathway occurring within mitochondria, in which food metabolites are oxidized and CO2 is liberated, and coenzymes are reduced
Lipid organic compound formed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (fats and cholesterol)
Locomotion voluntary and involuntary movement of body via musculoskelatal system
Lymphatic system a complex system of thin-walled vessels similar to the blood capillaries, which serve to collect lymph fluid from tissues and organs and to transport the fluid to the venous circulation
Macrophage protective cell type common in connective tissue, lymphatic tissue, and certain body organs that phagozytizes tissue cells, bacteria, and other foreign debris, important as an antigen-presenter to T cells and B cells in the immune system
Malignant life threatening; pertains to neoplasms that spread and lead to death, such as cancer
Maltose a disaccharide or double sugar made of two glucose molecules
Mast cells immune cells that function to detect foreign substances in the tissue spaces and initiate local inflammatory responses against them, typically found clustered deep to an epithelium or along blood vessels
Mechanical disadvantage (speed lever) a condition that occurs when the load is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum, the effort applied must be greater than the load to be moved
Mechanical energy the energy directly involved in moving matter
Metals the elements in the middle and left parts of the periodic table, except for hydrogen
Metamorphosis series of changes that take place as an egg develops into an adult, including the four stages of egg, larva, pupa and adult
Milliequivalent per liter (mEq/L) the units used to measure electrolyte concentrations of body fluids, a measure of the number of electrical charges in 1 liter of solutions
Mitosis process of cell duplication, in which two daughter cells receive exactly the same nuclear material as the original cell
Molarity the number of moles of solute in 1 liter of solution
Mole an amount of a substance equal in grams to the sum of the atomic weights
Molecule a group of atoms linked together by covalent bonds
Monosaccharide a simple sugar that cannot be broken down by hydrolysis (glucose, fructose and galactose) building blocks of carbohydrates
Motor neurons special nerve cells that transmit impulses to the muscles
Mucous membranes membranes that form the lining of body cavities open to the exterior (digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts)
Muscle Tone sustained partial contraction of a muscle in response to stretch receptor inputs, keeps the muscle healthy and ready to act
Nephron structural and functional unit of the kidney, consists of the glomerulus and renal tubule
Neutralization the chemical reaction of an acid and base to yield a salt and water
Neutron a heavy subatomic particle with zero change, found in an atomic nucleus
Nonmetals the elements in the upper-right part of the periodic table, and also hydrogen
Nucleus core of an atom, contains protons and neutrons
Nutrient nourishment, food that promotes growth in living organisms
Nutrition taking in and breaking down nutrients to be used for metabolism via digestive system
Operant Conditioning a method of using rewards to train an animal to perform tasks that are not innate
Ophthalmic pertaining to the eye
Optic pertaining to the eye or vision
Orbital a classification of the energy level occupied by electrons indicating the probable location of the electrons
Organ a part of the body formed by two or more tissues and adapted to carry out a specific function
Organic refers to compounds based on carbon
Osmosis movement of water through a semipermeable membrane from an area of greater water concentration to an area of lesser water concentration
Osmotic pressure force produced by the pressure of water diffusing through a semipermeable membrane, the greater the difference in water concentration on either side of the membrane, the greater the osmotic pressure
Oxidation a reaction involving the loss of electrons by an element
Oxidation-reduction reaction a reaction that couples the oxidation (loss of electrons) of one substance with the reduction (gain of electrons) of another substance
Oxygenation taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide via respiratory system
Pathogen disease-causing microorganism
Periodic table display of the elements in order of atomic number with similar elements falling into columns
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) portion of the nervous system consisting of nerves and ganglia that lie outside of the brain and spinal cord
Peristalsis wavelike contractions of muscles in tubular organs, motion that forces food through the human digestive organs, means of locomotion in earthworms
Permeability that property of membranes that permits passage of molecules and ions
pH a number describing the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
Photosynthesis energy-making reaction in plants, formation of carbohydrates in chlorophyll-containing tissue of plants exposed to light
Phototropism growth response of plants to light
Pituitary gland neuro-endrocrine gland located beneath the brain that serves a variety of functions including regulation of gonads, thyroid, adrenal cortex, lactation, and water balance
Pleural cavities a subdivision of the thoracic cavity, each houses a lung
Polymer a large molecule formed by many small molecules linked together in chainlike fashion
Potential energy stored or inactive energy
Pressure gradient difference in hydrostatic pressure that drives filtration
Progestrone hormone partly responsible for preparing the uterus for the fertilized ovum
Prostate gland accessory reproductive gland, produces one-third of semen volume, including fluids that activate sperm
Proton a heavy subatomic particle with a positive charge, found in an atomic nucleus
Radioactivity the emission of subatomic particles from a nucleus
Recessive traits a trait due to a particular allele that does not manifest itself in the present of other alleles that generate traits dominant to it, must be present in double dose in order to be expressed.
Reduction a reaction involving the gain of electrons by an element
Regeneration replacement of destroyed tissue with the same kind of tissue
Regulation hormonal control of bodily function via endocrine system
Renal pertaining to the kidney
Reserve air amount of air that can be forced out of the lungs after normal expiration
Residual air amount of air left in the lungs after forced expiration
Respiration reaction in the cells of plants and animals that use oxygen and sugar to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy
RNA (ribonucleic acid) genetic material that assists with protein synthesis
Salt a solid compound composed of both metallic and nonmetallic elements
Saturated describes a solution that has as much solutes as it can hold at a given temperature
Scientific method a series of logically related steps used to gather information in order to solve a problem
Self-duplication production of offspring via the reproductive system
Semipermeable membrane a membrane that selectively allows materials to pass through
Sensory neurons special nerve cells that transmit impulses from a stimulus to a receptor
Sex-linked inheritance inherited traits determined by genes on the sex chromosomes
Shell a set of electron orbitals with the same principal quantum number
Skeletal muscle muscle composed of cylindrical multinucleated cells with striations, skeletal muscle, a voluntary muscle, attaches to the body's skeleton
Solubility the upper limit to the concentration of a solute
Solubility product the constant obtained by multiplying the ion concentrations in a saturated solution
Solute the substance that is dissolved in a solution
Solvent the host substance of dominant abundance in the solution
Stimulus receptors sensory organs that respond to stimuli, organs that respond to sight, sound, smell, touch and taste
Sublimation the transformation of a solid directly to a gas without an intervening liquid state
Substrate substance on which an enzyme operates
Tridal air amount of air involved during normal breathing
Tropism movement of plants in response to stimuli
Valence a signed integer describing the combining power of an atom as a real or hypothetical charge
Ventrally in the front, near the bottom
Vital capacity maximum volume of air inhaled or exhaled during forced breathing
Created by: jacquelineg7