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Chapt 7_8 8th Sci

Short unit transitioning from Physics to Chemistry

The building block of matter Atom
All things are made of these Atoms
Particle in an atom with a NEGATIVE charge electron
Movement of these causes electricity electrons
Particle in atom with a POSITIVE charge proton
Protons are located in the nucleus
A proton (does, does not) move does NOT move
Particle in the nucleus of an atom with NO charge neutron
The center of the atom which contains protons and neutrons nucleus
Objects with opposite charges (- +) attract
Objects with like charges (- -) (+ +) repel
Build up of electrons in one area due to the gain or loss of electrons when objects rub together Static electricity
The rate of the flow of electrons through a conductor current
Material that allows electrons to flow easily Conductor
Water or copper metal are examples of this Conductor
Materials that resist the flow of electrons Insulator
What happens when you get a shock from a door knob after walking across a carpet? Electrons move from the carpet to your body. Because your body has a negative charge, when you touch the door knob (conductor), the electrons jump to it.
Why does your hair stand up when you pull a wool sweater over your head? Electrons from the sweater move onto the hair strands. The like charges on the strands repel each other, making them spread apart.
The flow of electrons electric current
Why should you avoid trees in an electrical storm? They are high objects, and attract electrical strikes
Why should you avoid holding a golf club in an electrical storm? Metal objects are good conductors of electricity, and attract electrical strikes
Why is it safe to be in a car in an electrical storm? The car is connected to the ground, and will “ground” an electrical strike. The electrons will stay on the outside of the car, due to the "shell effect."
How does a Thundercloud become electrically charged? Atoms rub against each other as they are caught in up and down drafts, and electrons are knocked off.
How do the charges align themselves in a Thunderhead? Positive charges build up at the top of the cloud, negative near the bottom.
How do the negative charges in a Thunderhead effect the ground? The ground becomes positively charged as electrons are pushed away.
The process that causes an object to become positively charged when near something negatively charged Induction
What causes lightning? Electrons accumulated near the bottom of clouds "jump the gap" to the positively charged ground. What we see is the return stroke.
What causes a Spark? When electrons "jump the gap" to a positive object.
What process occurs when a neutral object is given a temporary charge? Induction
Negative charges move from the area where there are the ___________ to where there are the ___________. Greatest/most to Fewest/least
True or False: Static electricity can build up on a conductor. False: Static electricity CANNOT build up on a conductor, because a conductor allows the electrons to move (flow)
What type of material allows negative charges to build up on its surface? An insulator
The larger an insulator's resistance, the _________ the current that flows through it less/smaller
The measure of how hard it is for current to flow through a material is its ________. Resistance
The difference in electric potential between two areas that causes electrons to flow. voltage
In a battery, the difference in charge between these two areas creates a current The positive and negative terminals
Voltage is measured in Volts
Current is measured in amps
When electrons move from one object to another, what happens to the objects' charges? The one the electrons leave becomes positive; the one the electrons enter becomes negative.
Rubber, glass, and plastic are all what when used in conjunction with electricity. Insulators
The charging of an object caused by contact between two objects is called Conduction
What causes thunder? Thunder is caused when air, superheated by lightning, suddenly expands, creating an "explosive" sound wave.
When electricity is attracted to a conductor which leads to to the earth, we say it has been what? Grounded
When conducting materials are arranged in such a way to allow electrons to flow, they form this. A closed circuit
What is the difference between a closed circuit and an open circuit? A closed circuit allows electrons to flow through it. An open circuit, blocked either by an insulator or a gap in the conductors, prevents the flow of electrons.
What is the scientific term for a "spark"? Static discharge
What type of circuit has only one loop for electricity to flow through? A series circuit
What is an example of a series circuit? Older "Christmas tree" lights
What type of circuit has two or more loops for energy to flow through? A parallel circuit
What is an example of a parallel circuit? Overhead lights at school
In which type of circuit do all the lights go out if one stops working? A series circuit
What are two advantages of parallel circuits? All the loops get the same voltage and when one circuit breaks, the others continue to work.
What type of circuits are used in wiring houses? Parallel circuits
Why are grounded (three prong) outlets a safety device? The ground wire prevents shocks/fires by channeling extra voltage to the ground outside the house.
What is a GFI outlet? A Ground Fault Interrupter outlet contains a breaker within the outlet that can prevent shocks/overloads. Usually found in areas with water near outlets (kitchens/bathrooms)
How does a circuit breaker or fuse box work? When two much amperage begins to flow through a circuit, the breaker trips or the fuse "blows" (burns through its filament), opening the circuit and breaking the flow of electricity.
What does voltage difference do? It creates a push that causes charges. Voltage difference is required for current to flow?
What are the two types of batteries? Dry cell and Wet cell
In the lab, we built a battery with a carbon rod and a zinc container. What type of battery was this? A dry cell battery.
What two types of current run most electric devices? AC and DC
The terms AC and DC stand for what? Alternating Current and Direct Current
In what direction do charges flow? From high voltage to low voltage
What does resistance change electrical energy to in a light bulb? Thermal (heat) energy and light
What is the unit for resistance? ohms
How do wall outlets allow electrical current to flow? There is a voltage difference between the two hole of the outlet, so the current provided by the power plant will flow through wires plugged into the outlet.
What do we call the interaction between two magnets that increases as the magnets move closer together? Magnetic force
The regions of a magnet where forces are strongest are called its _______________ Magnetic poles
What do we call the two poles of a magnet? North and South
How are the poles of a magnet like the positive and negative poles of a battery? Just as like charges repel and opposite charges attract, the like poles of a magnet (N-N or S-S) will repel, and opposite poles (N-S) attract.
The area surrounding a magnet where magnetic forces are exerted is called its ____________ Magnetic field
What 3 elements can be magnetic? Iron (Fe), Cobalt (Co) and Nickel (Ni)
What do we call the force of attraction or repulsion between certain objects due to motion of electric charges? Magnetism
Iron, Cobalt and Nickel all have small areas of like arrangement of electrons. What do we call these areas? Magnetic domains
What causes an object to become magnetic? All the magnetic domains in the object point the same way.
How can you magnetize an object made of a magnetic material? Rubbing a magnetic material with another magnet, or passing it through moving electric charges can line up magnetic domains?
What do moving charges create? They can create magnetic fields?
How are magnetic fields related to electricity? Magnetic fields can make charges move, creating an electric current.
What do we call a temporary magnet made by placing a piece of iron inside a coil of wire carrying a current? An electromagnet
A device made of an electromagnet that spins freely between the poles of a permanent fixed magnet, changing electric energy to mechanical energy, is called what? An electric motor
What device produces electric current by rotating a coil of wire within a magnetic field? A generator
Created by: judi829