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CH 11-19 Final

Honors History 9th grade

Chapter 11-19Chapter 11-19
Oregon Country heard about in 1800s. Huge area beyond Rocky Mountains. Today- Oregon, Washington, Idaho, parts of Montana, Wyoming, and Canada. Varied geography attracted farmers and trappers. Pacific Coast=fertile soil. Mild temperatures all year, rainfall is plen
Mountain Men adventurous men who hiked through Oregon’s vast forests, trapping animals and living off the land. Rugged individualists, follow independent course in life, colorful appearance. Shoulder length hair, tomahawks and pistols hung from their waists. Harsh
Oregon Trail started in 1843. Wagons left in spring. Independence, Missouri to Oregon. 2,000 miles in 5 months. May-October
Missionaries first white Americans to build permanent homes in
Rendezvous get togethers
Stephen Austin led settlers into Texas (4,000 Mexicans) with fathers land grant from Spain
Mexico enforced laws in 1830 no slavery/no more Americans/had to worship in Catholic Church
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna came to power in 1833 in Mexico. 2 years later he threw out constitution (military dictator)
Tejanos Mexicans who lived in Texas and supported Americans. Wanted to be rid of Santa Anna
Republic of Texas new nation led by Sam Houston (commander of army)
Alamo old Spanish Mission. 1835-1836. Supplies of ammunition and medicine were low. Beef/corn/water. 150 Texans against 6,000 Mexicans
Siege enemy forces try to capture a city or fort, usually by surrounding and bombarding it
Battle of San Jacinto 18 minutes. Texans killed 630 Mexicans and wounded 700. Captured Santa Anna and made him sign treaty which he didn’t go by when they let him go
Lone Star Republic independent nation. Sam Houston as Pres.
Annex add on White southerners- in favor of annex/Northerners- against (slavery)
New Mexico Territory entire southwest that belonged to Mexico in 1840s. Arizona/New Mexico, Colorado (part) - all of Nevada and Utah Mission life for Native Americans: forced to work on missions by soldiers. Herded sheep and cattle, raised crops. In return, they lived ther
Manifest Destiny belief that the United States was clearly meant to expand to the Pacific (superior to N.A. and Mexicans) 1844 election: Whigs-Clay (opposed annexation of TX),
James K. Polk Democratic nominee (favored expansion, WINS) 54, 40 or fight
Mexican War 20 months, achieved Manifest Destiny. 1845- Texas was annexed because Sam Houston pretended he would sign with Britain (enemy)
Winfield Scott landed another American army at the Mexican port of Veracruz. After a long battle, Americans took the city and continued toward Mexico City (capital)
Chapultepec a fort outside Mexico City, Mexicans made a heroic last battle
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo 1848, forced Mexico to give all of California and New Mexico to the United States.
Cede to give
Mexican cession all of California and New Mexico given to US. In return, US paid Mexico $15 million and agreed to respect the rights of Spanish speaking people in the Mexican cession. 1853- US paid Mexico $10 million for a strip of land in Arizona and New Mexico (Gadsde
Mormons largest group of settlers to move into the Mexican Cession. They belonged to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Joseph Smith founded that church (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints). Killed by angry mob in 1844
Brigham Young new leader of Mormons. Moved them to valley near Utah and Rockies
Gold Rush in California at Sutter’s Mill, people came from Europe, China, Australia, and South America. 80,000+
Forty-niners people who made the journey to California in 1849
Vigilantes self-appointed law enforcers dealt out punishment even though they had no legal power to do so. Lynched (hanged without legal trial)
Elias Howe patented a sewing machine
John Deere invented a lightweight steel plow
Cyrus McCormick opened a factory in Chicago that produced mechanical reapers
Samuel F.B. Morse telegraph
Telegraph “talking wire”, device that sent electrical signals along a wire
Locomotive steam-powered engine to pull rail cars. Became railroads, stronger bridges/roadbeds, safer, quieter, mostly in North and West. Caused farmers to leave jobs and turn to manufacturing and trade
John Griffiths launched the Rainbow
Clipper Ships Rainbow was first, tall masts/huge sails, fast! Steamships were faster and created by Britain in 1850s. Factory days- 4am started work, 730 breakfast, noon lunch, ended at 730 pm. Hazards: blistering heat, freezing, machines were dangerous,
Trade Unions formed first by artisans. Called for shorter workday, higher wages, and better working conditions.
Strikes union workers refused to do their jobs to get their demands met
Sarah Bagley organized the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association
Nativists wanted to preserve the country for native born, white citizens
Know Nothing Party formed by nativists in 1850s.
Eli Whitney created cotton gin
Cotton gin cleaned cotton of seeds
Discrimination a policy or attitude that denies equal rights to certain groups of people
Cotton Kingdom South Carolina though Alabama and Mississippi to Texas. Area that southerners expanded to get good soil for cotton. 8% owned 5 or more slaves. 8% owned 1-4 slaves. 50% whites who owned no slaves. 2% free African Americans
Slave Codes laws to keep slaves from either running away or rebelling: forbidden to gather in groups of more than 3, could not leave owner’s land without pass, not allowed to own guns, crime to read or write, not able to attend trial
Extended family grandparents, parents, children, aunts, uncles, and cousins formed tight knit group
Denmark Vesey free, planned revolt in 1822, he and 35 other executed because betrayed
Nat Turner in 1831, preacher, led major revolt, killed more than 57 whites
Social Reform an organized attempt to improve what is unjust or imperfect in society
Predestination God decided in advance which people would gain salvation in heaven
Second Great Awakening religious movement, free will rather than predestination. Individuals could chose by their own actions to save their own souls
Dorothea Dix Boston schoolteacher, visited jails to help the mentally ill get better treatment, penal system as well
Penal System system of prisons
Prison Reform people were in jail for being in debt and couldn’t get out to make money. Eventually not treated as criminals. Minor crimes were given lesser sentences. People starved if food was low and guards sold rum and meals
Temperance movement campaign against alcohol abuse
“Demon rum” would lead to wife beating, child abuse, and breakup of families. Women led
Education teachers poorly paid and trained, few students went to school, crowded into single room. 1820s- Required to have grade schools
American Colonization Society set up by Americans as an independent colony in Africa for freed slaves in 1817 (Liberia)
Abolitionists wanted to end slavery in the United States completely
Frederick Douglass first African American abolitionist. Born into slavery in MA, taught himself to read
William Lloyd Garrison most outspoken white abolitionist. The Liberator- newspaper. Helped found NE anti-slavery society
Grimke sisters Angelina and Sarah- daughters of wealthy slaveholder, gave lectures opposing slavery and worked for women’s rights
Underground Railroad network of abolitionists who secretly helped slaves reach freedom in the North or Canada
Harriet Tubman escaped slave, led more than 300 slaves to freedom. “Black Moses”
Sojourner Truth escaped slave, Isabella Baumfree, spoke out for women’s rights
Elizabeth Cady Stanton women’s rights speaker, father- no encouragement
Seneca Falls Convention in NY, 1848, 200 women and 40 men. D.O.S. (below) presented at meeting. Demanded equality for women at school, work, and in church
Declaration of Sentiments modeled after Declaration of Independence
Missouri Compromise proposed by Clay, admitting Missouri as slave state and Maine as a free states. 36’30N- slavery banned north of line except Missouri
Wilmot Proviso David Wilmot- ban slavery in any lands won from Mexico
Sectionalism loyalty to a state or section, rather than to a country as a whole
Popular sovereignty control by the people
Free Soil Party Whig and Democratic parties joined who opposed slavery. Wanted to keep it out of western territory
Election of 1848 -Free Soil candidate- Martin Van Buren (ban slavery in Mexican Cession) -Democrat candidate- Lewis Cass (popular sovereignty) -Whigs candidate- Zachary Taylor (assumed slave supporter) -Taylor won
Secede remove themselves
Fugitive runaway
Stephen Douglas senator from Illinois, took over for Clay.
Compromise of 1850 Clay’s plan. 5 parts. 1-California to enter the Union as a free state. 2- Divided the rest of the Mexican Cession into the territories of New Mexico and Utah, slavery decided by popular sovereignty. 3- Ended slave trade in Washington, D.C. 4- Stricte
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves. People who didn’t could be fined $1,000 and jailed for 6 months. Judges paid more for accusing slave
Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom’s Cabin- showed evils of slavery and the injustice of the Fugitive Slave Law
Kansas-Nebraska Act Territory be divided into Kansas and Nebraska and each decide issue of slavery by popular sovereignty
Repeal undo
Border Ruffians from South- rode across the border and battled the antislavery forces in Kansas
John Brown abolitionist, rode to Pottawatomie Creek and murdered 5 proslavery settlers
Bleeding Kansas Kansas territory where 200 people were killed over slavery
Charles Sumner leading abolitionist senator, (criticized Andrew Butler)
Dred Scott Case moved to Wisconsin where slavery was not allowed then back to Missouri. Filed lawsuit that he lived in a free territory and was a free man. Supreme Court ruled against him because he was ‘property’
Republican party made up of Free Soilers, northern Democrats and antislavery Whigs
James Buchanan from PA, won his election with out voters from the south
Abraham Lincoln a republican, became president in 1860
John Brown’s Raid led followers to Harper’s Ferry, VA. Planned to raid an arsenal and thought blacks would show up to help but he was stopped by Lee. He was sentenced to death
Arsenal gun warehouse
Election of 1860 Northern Democrats- Stephen Douglas. Southern Democrats- John Breckinridge of Kentucky. Constitutional Union Party- John Bell of TN, Whig. Wanted to keep the union together. Lincoln won the election
Crittenden’s Compromise extended Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific, create “unamendable” amendment that states south of compromise line had the right to hold slaves
Confederate States of America formed by seceded states (SC, AL, FL, GA, LA, Mississippi, TX)
Jefferson Davis first President of Confederacy
Fort Sumter was important to the Confederacy because it guarded Charleston Harbor, SC. Anderson surrendered in 1861
Racism belief that one race is superior to another
Border states Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland. Slave states that remained in the Union
Martial law rule by the army instead of the elected government
Martial law strengths & weaknesses SOUTH: Defending homeland, life (S), Best officers (S), Few factories to produce weapons and supplies (W), Railroads didn’t connect to one another plus had few railroads (W), Political problems (favored state rights) (W), Small population- 9 million 1/3
Union States OR, CA, MN, KS, Iowa, WI, MI, IN, IL, OH, PA, NY, NJ, CT, RI, MA, NH, VT, Maine, Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware
Confederate States TX, LA, MS, AL, GA, FL, SC, AR, TN, NC, VA
Robert E. Lee commander of Confederate army
Strategies NORTH: Use naval power to cripple south’s economy and invade southern territory with armies, block southern ports (trade with Europe). Wanted to seize Richmond, VA, confederate capital. Get control of Mississippi River- keep south from getting goods
Battle of Bull Run VA, South (Jackson) showed both sides needed training and war was going to be long and bloody
Stonewall Jackson got his name from Battle of Bull Run, Confederate commander
Ironclad ship ships covered in iron
Monitor (north) vs. Merrimack (south) Hampton Roads, VA. Draw
Battle of Antietam Lee vs. McClellan, S lost battle plans, North claimed victory
Battle of Fredericksburg VA, Lee vs. Burnside, one of the Union’s worst defeats
Battle of Chancellorsville VA, Lee, Confederate victory, tragedy- shot Jackson by accident
Grant captured Fort Henry/Donelson- helped to capture MS River, eventually becomes commander of Union army
Battle of Shiloh Grant, Union victory
Emancipate free
Emancipation Proclamation declared that on January 1, 1863, all slaves in a state still in rebellion to the Union would be freed
Discrimination denying the same rights and treatment as others
54th Massachusetts Regiment most famous African American troop, attacked Fort Wagner, showed courage even though the troop was mostly wiped out
Civilians people who were not in the army
Copperheads northerners who opposed using force to keep the South in the Union
Draft required all able bodied males between 20 and 45 to serve in the military if they were called
Habeas corpus right to have charges filed or hearing before being jailed
Income tax tax on people’s earnings
Inflation a rise in prices and a decrease in the value of money
Profiteers charged excessive prices for goods the government desperately needed for the war
Profiteers Effects on NORTH -helped economy, farm production went up. -inflation/income tax
Profiteers Effects on SOUTH Income tax/tax-in-kind/inflation. damaged cotton trade. Blockade created shortages of food, weapons
Nursing women on both sides worked as nurses
Siege military blockade for an enemy town or position in order to force it to surrender
Vicksburg on MS River, surrendered to Union
Gettysburg 3 day battle, horrible loss by Confederates
Gettysburg Address 3 minute speech, said that the Civil War was a test of whether or not a democratic nation could survive
Total War civilians as well as soldiers are affected
Sheridan Shenandoah Valley, destroyed farms and livestock
Sherman captured/burned Atlanta, Georgia. Destroy everything useful to the south, ripped up railroad tracks, tore up fields, burned barns, homes, and factories
Election of 1864 Democrats- McClellan . Lincoln is reelected, close race
Appomattox Court house on April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered
Effects of the War 360,000 Union soldiers killed/ 250,000 Confederates. Southern land was destroyed
Postwar Problems NORTH: Economic problems- soldiers needed jobs. Boom times quickly returned, land was not destroyed. SOUTH: 2/3 of railroad tracks had been ruined. Cities/houses/barns/fields were burned. Wrecked financial system- never repaid people, banks closed
freedmen men and women who had been slaves
Reconstruction refers to the rebuilding of the South after the Civil War
Ten Percent Plan a southern state could form a new government after 10% of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States, government then had to abolish slavery
Amnesty government pardon
Wade-Davis Bill rival plan for Reconstruction. Required a majority of white men in each southern state to swear loyalty to the Union. Denied right to vote or hold office to anyone who fought in the Confederacy
Freedmen’s Bureau gave food and clothing to former slaves. It tried to find jobs for freedmen. Helped poor whites by providing medical care for more than one million people. Set up schools for freed slaves
John Wilkes Booth actor from the South, assassinated Lincoln at Ford’s Theater, captured and killed in a barn
Andrew Johnson VP, became President, was governor of TN but remained loyal to the Union
13th amendment abolish slavery
14th amendment granted all citizenship to anyone born in the US
15th amendment forbade any state to deny African Americans the right to vote because of their race
Black Codes laws that severely limited the rights of freedmen
Radical Republicans opposed Johnson, wanted to make own plan for the south
Radical wants to make drastic changes in society
Election of 1866 Johnson (didn’t want 14th amendment or radical republicans). Republicans won majorities of both houses in Congress
Radical Reconstruction period that followed of Republicans in Congress taking charge of Reconstruction
Reconstruction Act threw out southern state governments that refused to ratify 14th amendment, divided south into 5 military districts under army control. Required southern states to write new constitutions and ratify 14th, African Americans must be allowed to vote
Impeach to bring formal charges of wrongdoing against an elected official
Grant became President in 1868
Scalawags white southern Republicans
Carpetbaggers northerners who moved south after the war
Conservatives white southerners who resisted Reconstruction and wanted the south to change as little as possible
KKK Ku Klux Klan, white southerners secret society who worked to keep blacks and white Republicans out of office
Sharecroppers farmed the land, using seed, fertilizer, and tools provided by the planter. The planter got a share of the crop at harvest time
Cycle of poverty slaves ended up working for old masters, farmers lost their land and worked as sharecroppers along with slaves
Amnesty Act restored the right to vote to nearly all white southerners
Election of 1876 Democrats- Samuel Tilden. Republican- Rutherford B. Hayes. Hayes- won election over disputed votes given to him, South didn’t object because he secretly agreed to end Reconstruction. Industries: 90% of tobacco industry, oil refineries developed, lumber
Poll taxes required voters to pay a fee each time they voted
Literacy tests required voters to read and explain a section of the Constitution
Grandfather clauses if a voter’s father or grandfather was eligible to vote in 1867, the voter did not have to take a literacy test
Segregation separating people of different races in public places
Plessy vs. Ferguson Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal as long as facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Lynching illegal seizure and execution of someone by a mob
Indians way of life rich and varied cultures. well organized religions, made fine handicrafts, and created poetry. each nation had its own language. agriculture was main food source (semi permanent villages). buffalo hunting replaced farming when they got horses
Uses for buffalo Food, clothing, and shelter. Buffalo meat- main item in diet . Dried meat-jerky. Leather (hide), cloth (fur), horns and bones (tools and toys), sinews (thread or bowstrings)
Boom towns started out with tents, replaced by houses, hotels, restaurants to supply miners, most lasted a few years
Ghost town former boom town that was abandoned because there was no longer gold or silver
Vigilantes self appointed law enforcers who tracked down outlaws and punished them, usually without a trial
Subsidy financial aid or a land grant from the government
Transcontinental railroad one that stretches across a continent from coast to coast
Immigrant workers hired by railroads for low pay, dangerous and backbreaking work
Cattle drives journey of animals hundreds of miles north to railroad lines in Kansas and Missouri
Cowhands tended to cattle and drove herds to market. Keep cattle from drowning, fix stampedes, fight grass fires
Vaqueros skilled riders who herded cattle on ranches in Mexico, California, and the Southwest
Cow towns where cattle drives ended, along railroad lines. Cattle were held in great pens and shipped to markets in the East
Cattle kingdom cattle grazed from Kansas to present day Montana, branded cattle
Fort Laramie Treaty Indians had to keep to a limited area and they were promised money, domestic animals, agricultural tools, and other goods. The land would be theirs forever
Chivington Massacre John and his militia attacked Cheyenne Indians who surrendered. He ignored the white flag and killed over 100 men, women, and children
Reservation a limited area set aside for Native Americans
End of the buffalo buffalo hunting became sport, hide blankets became popular, population decreased extremely. Plains Indians struggled to survive without food.
Sioux War of 1976 Indians fought back when whites came onto their reservations. They ended up giving up 1/3 of the land promised to them in the Fort Laramie Treaty
Apache Wars Geronimo fought the longest. Lasted 10 years. Didn’t want to give up reservations. Marked end of formal warfare between Indians and whites
Dawes Act encouraged Native Americans to become farmers.
Homestead Act law promised 160 acres of land to anyone who farmed it for 5 years.
Exodusters African Americans who moved to Kansas in 1879
Homesteaders people who settled on the land given by the Homestead Act
Sodbusters Plains farmers
National Grange formed by farmers who wanted to boost farm profits and reduce the rates that railroads charged for shipping grain
Farmer’s Alliance set up cooperatives and warehouses. Spread from Texas through the South and into the Plains states. Tried to bring back black and white farmers together
Populist Party 1891, farmers and laborers formed it. Demanded government help with falling farm prices and regulation of railroad rates. Called for income tax, 8 hour workday, and limits on immigration
Election of 1896 Populist- William Jennings Bryan, supported by Democrats. Bankers and business people supported- William McKinley (Republican). McKinley wins
Railroad Network American Railroads connected their short railroad lines to make one long one
Consolidate combine
Pool an agreement to divide up business in an area
Rebates discounts
Andrew Carnegie richest steel industry owner
Vertical Integration to acquire control of all the steps required to change raw materials into finished products
Corporation a business that is owned by investors
Stock shares in business
Dividends shares of a corporation’s profit
Morgan most powerful banker of the late 1800s, used banking profits to gain control of major corporations
Standard Oil Company made from all companies that Rockefeller bought
Rockefeller Bought out all other competition to make his company the only one
Trust a group of corporations run by a single board of directors
Monopoly controls all or nearly all the business of an industry
Free Enterprise System businesses are owned by private citizens
Assembly Line workers are stationed in one place as products edge along on a moving belt
Mass Production making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply
Sweatshop a working place where people labor long hours in poor conditions for low pay
Child Labor had little time for schooling, lack of education reduced their chance to build a better life as adults
Knights of Labor a workers union that was open to skilled workers only
Haymarket Riot where eight anarchists were arrested because a bomb exploded at Haymarket Square
American Federation of Labor or AFL, open to skilled workers only
Collective Bargaining the right of unions to negotiate with management for workers as a group
Triangle of Fire where 150 people lost their lives when a fire broke out in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
Push Factors conditions that drive people from their homes
Pull Factors conditions that attract immigrants to a new area
Steerage an airless room below deck
Statue of Liberty a gift from the French, a symbol of the hope and freedom offered by the US
Ellis Island an island where immigrants had to face a medical inspection
Angel Island where Asian immigrants had to go before going to the US
Ethnic Group a group of people who share a common culture
Immigration Patterns large numbers of people arrived from Southern and Eastern Europe
Assimilation the process of becoming part of another culture
Nativists wanted to limit immigration and preserve the country for native-born white Protestants
Chinese Exclusion Act said that no Chinese laborer could enter the US
Urbanization the movement of population from farms to cities
Tenements small apartments
Building Codes laws that set standards for how structures should be built
Settlement House a community center that offers services to the poor
Hull House an old mansion, opened to poor people
Jane Addams a rich woman who opened the Hull House
Salvation Army a place for needy slum dwellers
City Life no more room for buildings, so architects has to build the buildings upwards
Yellow Journalism presented scandals, crime stories, and gossip into the newspapers
Vaudeville a variety show that included comedians, song-and-dance routines, and acrobats
New Forms of Entertainment baseball, basketball, football, ragtime
Created by: fhchick08