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Anatomy-Chapter 12

The heart is located in the thoracic cavity between the lungs
The thoracic cavity between the lungs is called the mediastinum
The heart is enclosed in the pericardial membranes
The outermost layer of the pericardial membranes is the fibrous pericardium
Lining the fibrous pericardium is the parietal pericardium
On the surface of the heart muscle is the visceral pericardium
The visceral pericardium is often called the epicardium
Between the parietal and visceral pericardial membranes is serous fluid
Myocardium Cardiac muscle
The chambers of the heart are lined with endocardium
The important physical characteristic of the endocardium is not its thinnes, but rather its smoothness
The upper chambers of the heart are the right and left atria
Interatrial septum the common wall of the myocardium
The lower chambers of the heart are the right and left ventricles
The right and left atria have _______ walls thin
The right and left ventricles have ______ walls thick
The ventricles are separated by teh interventricular septum
The atria receive blood from the body or lungs
The ventricles pump blood to either the lungs or body
Caval veins return blood from the body to the right atrium
The superior vena cava carried blood from the upper body
The inferior vena cava carries blood from the lower body
From the right atrium, blood will flow through the _______ _____________ _____ into the right ventricle right atrioventricular (AV) valve
The left atrium receives blood from the lungs by the way of four pulmonary veins
Blood flows into the left ventricle through the left atrioventricular (AV) valve
The left atrioventricular (AV) valve is also called the mitral valve or bicuspid valve
Another function of the atria is the production of a hormone involved in blood pressure maintenance
When the walls of the atria are stretched by increased blood volume or blood pressure, the cells produce atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
Atrial natriuetic peptide is also called atrial natriuertic hormone (ANH)
ANP decreases the reabsorption of sodium ions by the kidneys
At the junction of a large pulmonary artery and the right ventricle is the pulmonary semilunar valve
Papillary muscles columns of myocardium projecting into the lower part of the right ventricle
Chordae tendineae Strands of fibrous connective tissue that extend from the papillary muscles to the flaps o the tricuspid valve
The left ventricle pumps blood to the body through the aorta
The aorta is the ________ artery of the body largest
At the junction of the aorta and the left ventricle aortic semilunar valve
The right side of the heart receives _________ blood from the body deoxygenated
The left side of the heart receives _________ blood from the lungs oxygenated
Ischemic deprived of its blood supply
Infarct an area of necrotic (dead) tissue
Myocardial inarction is commonly called a heart attack
Systole contraction
Diastole relaxation
Heart murmur An extra sound during a heart beat, caused by the valves not closing properly
The natural pacemaker of the heart is the SA node
From the SA node, impulses for contraction travel to the atrioventricular (AV) node
Atrioventricular bundle The pathway for the electrical impulses to travels from the atria to the ventricles
The atroventricular bundle is also called the bundle of His
Bundle branches branches that come off of the atrioventricular bundle
From the bundle branches, electrical impulses travel along Purkinje fibers
Arrhythmias are irregular heartbeats
ventricular fibrillation a very rapid and uncoordinated ventricular beat that is totally ineffective for pumping blood
A normal resting heart rate for an adult is 60 to 80 beats per minute
Bradycardia A resting heart rate of less than 60 bpm (except for athletes)
Tachycardia a prolonged or consistent rate greater than 100 bpm
A child's normal heart rate may be as high as 100 bpm
An infant's normal heart rate may be as high as 120 bpm
A near-term fetus' normal heart rate may be as high as 140 bpm
Stroke volume The amount of blood pumped by a ventricle per beat
Cardiac output= stroke volume x pulse (heart rate)
Starling's Law of the heart states that the more the cardiac muscle biers are stretched, the more forcefully they contract.
The _______ of the brain contains the cardiac center medulla
The two cardiac centers of the brain are the accelerator center and the inhibitory center
Pressoreceptors in the carotid sinuses and aortic sinus detect changes in blood pressure.
Chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and aortic body detect changes in oxygen content of the blood
Created by: akikoandpoog