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SS 11 CounterPoints

Ch 2: WW 1

Triple Entente France, Russia, and Britain who opposed the Triple Alliance. They hoped to reduce the threat of war.
Central Powers/ Triple Alliance Members of the Triple Alliance(Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy)
Allies Members of the Triple Entente(France, Russia, and Britain)
Sam Hughes Put in charge at Canada's armament industry. He created the Shell Committee to oversee the manufacturing of shells by 1917. He was a poor administrator and also took advantage of his position by awarding large govt. contracts to cronies.
Nationalism A strong attachment to one's nation, often mentioned as a chief cause of the outbreak of World War 1 in 1914.
Imperialism The takeover of territories by a country in order to create an empire. The period before the First World War is often referred to as the "Age Of Imperialism".
Militarism A nations policy of placing an unusually great emphasis on maintaining strong military forces. Glorification of things military.
Aboriginal Titles Large tracts of land had been set aside as reserves for aboriginals, however, the federal government was taking land from reserves without the agreement of the aboriginals.
Indian Act A Canadian Statute that concerns registered Indians (that is, First Nations peoples of Canada), their bands, and the system of Indian reserves. The Indian Act was enacted in 1876 by the Parliament of Canada.
Racism and Immigration African-Americans, Asians, an Eastern Europeans were discriminated against as minority groups in Canada.
Immigrants Many immigrants from Russia and Eastern Europe were accused of being social revolutionaries. Were wanted and hired in farms, railways etc. Government finally relaxed in 1925, because their goal was to increase the population.
The Battle of Ypres April 22 1915. Germans launched the first major gas attack near the town of Ypres, Belgium.
Battle of the Somme British offensive that began on July 1 1916 in northern France. Lasted for five months. In September, the British used the tank for the first time.
Battle of Vimy Ridge April 9 to April 12, 1917. Low ridge in France held by Germans. Both, the British and French had attempted to capture the ridge but failed.Canadian Corps captured it 3 days after Byng assaulted the ridge. Canada's greatest victory in WWI.
Battle of Passchendaele British offensive at Passchendaele Ridge near Ypres. In the battle, conditions were bad that many soldiers drowned in the mud and water that filled shell holes on the slopes of the ridge.
Schlieffen plan a bold strategy for a two-front war. It was designed by Germany to quickly invade Belgium, then France, and capture the capital city of Paris. After, Russia would be conquered.
Trench Warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. Often trenches were only a few metres apart.
No man's land The land between the trenches of the two enemies. It is under dispute between parties that will not occupy it because of fear or uncertainty.
Going over the top a military phrase derived from the trench warfare of the First World War. Attacks starting from trenches required infantry to climb over the top of the parapet before they could cross no man's land to attack the enemy trenches
Western Front term that described the "contested armed frontier" between lands controlled by Central Powers to the East and the Allies to the West. A "contested armed frontier" during a war is called a "front".
Robert Borden As Prime Minister of Canada during the First World War, Borden transformed his government to a wartime administration.
Canadian Expeditionary Force The Canadian Expeditionary Force was the group of Canadian military units formed for service overseas in the First World War.
Industrialism Happened when economic changes occurred and production in factories was needed. Since all these factories where located in the city people had to move to the cities to work.
Balance of power this is when nations will try to remain at equal strengths as one another usually resulting in an arms race.
Henri Bourassa Nationalist leader who resigned from Laurier's cabinet when Laurier agreed to send volunteers to fight with the British in South Africa. Argued that Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier was "a sell-out" to British imperialism and its supporters in Canada.
Conscription Crisis Borden (PM) introduced the Military Service Act, a bill that would make enlistment compulsory for military service (1917). Very controversial and emotional - it divided the country.
Halifax Explosion Dec 6, 1917. The Mont Blanc, a French vessel filled with dynamite, was accidentally hit by another ship and destroyed Halifax's harbour and much of the city. 2000-3000 died and 10 000 injured
Propaganda Media produced by governments presented in such a way as to inspire and spread particular beliefs or opinions
Billy Bishop WW1 flying ace, shot down 72 German warplanes. Went on to give promotional speeches about the war.
U-Boats Early German submarines, sank many ships including Lusitania, a passenger ship, killing about 1200 passengers.
Merchant Marine Cargo boats charged with the dangerous duty of delivering military supplies to Europe.
Victory Bonds/Taxes Loans of money (buying bonds)to the government with the aim to support the war. Taxes were also increases 4% as a result of the war effort.
War Measures Act A Canadian statute that allowed the government to assume sweeping emergency powers in the event of "war, invasion or insurrection, real or apprehended". Enacted in August 1914.
enemy aliens In law, an enemy alien is a citizen of a country which is in a state of conflict with the land in which he or she is located. Usually, but not always, the countries are in a state of declared war.
Internment camps An internment camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, enemy aliens, members of specific ethnic or religious groups, civilian inhabitants of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, usually during a war.
War of attrition A military strategy in which a belligerent side attempts to win a war by wearing down its enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and material assets.
Convoy A convoy is a group of vehicles (of any type, but usually motor vehicles or ships) travelling together for mutual support and protection.
Honour rationing Canadians used less butter and sugar and the government introduced meatless Fridays and meatless days . This was all to help the war effort.
Khaki election Applied to the 1917 Canadian federal election, which was held during the First World War. By allowing servicemen and women related to servicemen to vote, Sir Robert Borden's Unionist Party won with a strong majority.
Black Hand A military secret society founded in the Kingdom of Serbia on May 9, 1911. It was a part of the Greater-Serbia movement, with the intention of uniting all of the territories containing Serb populations annexed by Austria-Hungary.
Profiteering Any person or organization that improperly profits from warfare or by selling weapons and other goods to parties at war. The term has strong negative connotations.
Habeas corpus If the custodian does not have authority to detain the prisoner, then he must be released from custody.
Military Services Act - 1917 On May 18, 1917, Prime Minister Robert Borden announced in the Canadian House of Commons that Canada would begin registering and conscripting men for the Great War.
Created by: Max Whiffin Max Whiffin