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# ERM 7th Science Mod4

### Apologia General Science 2nd Ed-Science, Applied Science and Technology

Blaise Pascal great scientist,mathmatician,philosopher who invented the adding machine in 1642
Adding Machine a machine that could add and subtract; a forerunner of the computer
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) the first Electronic computer (HUGE)invented in 1947 by Eckert and Mauchly
John Eckert and John Mauchly invented ENIAC in 1947, which was faster than an adding machine
vacuum tubes ENIAC used almost 18,000 of them! to produce several hundred multiplication steps every second
transistor tiny & performed the same function but cheaper than a vacuum tube
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen German scientist who discovered x-rays in 1895
X-rays electricity passed through a tube, emitting "unknown" or "x" rays making images on film
simple machine a device that either multiplies or redirects a force
force a push or pull exerted on an object in an effort to change that object's velocity
lever a simple machine composed of a bar and a fulcrum
wheel and axle The simple machine composed of a wheel attached to a cylinder such that when one turns, the other turns as well
pulley a grooved wheel,used with a rope,that rotates freely on a frame
inclined plane A simple machine that is shaped like a ramp with the effort applied along the slope of the ramp
wedge A simple machine shaped like a ramp with the effort applied at the short edge
screw A simple machine composed of a wheel and axle with an inclined plane wrapped around the axle
fulcrum The part of a lever that does not move
effort In simple machines, the force being applied to the machine
resistance In simple machines, the weight the machine is manipulating
mechanical advantage The amount by which force or motion is MAGNIFIED in a simple machine
first-class lever A lever in which the fulcrum is between the effort and the resistance (Ex:pliers, see-saw)
second-class lever A lever in which the resistance is between the effort and the fulcrum(Ex: wheelbarrow)
third-class lever A lever in which the effort is between the fulcrum and the resistance (Ex:tweezers, forearm,shovel)
diameter The length of a straight line that travels from one side of a circle to another and passes through the center of the circle
block and tackle A system of multiple pulleys in which the mechanical advantage is given by the number of pulleys in the system
double wedge modified version of the wedge - forms a triangle
pitch the vertical distance between the threads (on a screw)
circumference The distance around a circle, equal to 3.1416 times the circle's diameter
pi apporximate number is 3.1416-geometry term
MA=(distance from fulcrum to effort) ÷ (distance from fulcrum to resistance) A Lever
MA=(diameter of the wheel) ÷ (diameter of the axle) A Wheel and Axle
MA=number of pulleys used A Block and Tackle pulley system
MA= (length of the slope)÷ (height) An Inclined Plane
MA= (length of the slope)÷ (height) A Wedge (as an inclined plane)
MA= (circumference)÷ (pitch) A Screw
How many basic simple machines are there? 6-lever,wheel/axle,pulley,inclined plane,wedge,screw.
Created by: supermommorris on 2012-01-09