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APII Blood


-emia Blood condition suffix
leukemia Increase number of cancerous white blood cells Leukocytes
septicemia Blood infections result when pathogens enter the blood from a wound (sepsis)
Bacteremia BACTERIAL invasion of blood with or without symptoms.
Root word for: Veins Phleb/o, Ven/o (root word for)
Root word for: Venules Venu/o (root word)
Root word for: Heart Cardi/o, Coron/o (root word)
Root word for: Aorta Aort/o (root word)
Root word for: Arteries Arteri/o (root word)
______ blood vessels contain blood that is rich in Oxygen. RED BLOOD VESSELS
______ blood vessels contain blood that is oxygen poor. BLUE BLOOD VESSELS (ex. cyanosis, Blue O2 def)
Root word: Red Erythr/o (root word)
What shape is an erythrocyte? Biconcave (like a cough drop)
Hematoma is what? a collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the skin or in an organ often as a result of trauma, a bruise, a "black & blue"
-osis is a suffix for condition, abnormal condition
-pathy is a suffix for disease condition
von Willebrand disease Inherited blood disorder marked by abnormally slow blood clotting; caused by deficiency in a blood clotting factor (Factor VIII 8)
Blood Bank Technologist specialist who collects, types, and prepares blood and its components for xfusions & lab tests
Clincial Laboratory Technologist (CLT) Specialist who performs tests to examine and anlyze body fluids, tissues, and cells.
Bilirubin part of hemoglobin, yellow bile pigment, becomes bile from the gallbladder & liver breaks down the fat (Baby's get Vitamin K injection & photogenic therapy (color vest)
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) level BUN Level - Measurement of the amount of urea (nitrogen contaniing waste material) in serum. A high level indicates poor kidney function, (because kidney's job is to remove urea from the bloodstream and filter it into urine).
Carbon Dioxide (Co2) level Blood test that measures all forms of carbon diaoxide (gas produced by cells and elimated by the lungs) in blood.
Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) level This test monitors the response of patients to cancer treatment colon/pancreas. A plasma test for a protein normally found in the blood of human fetuses & produced heathly adults only in a small amount.
Hemoglobin (define & function) Proten in red blood cells (erythocytes) that helps carry oxigen in the blood.
SubUngual Hematoma blood under the nail (finger or toe)
Three functions of Blood 1) Primary transportation medium which provides cells with nutrients & O2 (2) Xports CO2 & Removes metablolic waste (from lungs to kidneys via respiration and filtration)Carries Hormones from endrocrine to target tissues
Blood is what kind of tissue Liquid connective tissue
Amount of blood the average female has Female 4.5 Liters
Amount of blood the average male has Male 5-6 Liters
Why do men have more blood Men have more muscle mass & needs more blood to nurish & Oxygenate to support a larger skeletal system.
Blood does what for the endrocrine system carries hormones througout the body to the targeted tissues
What things does blood regulate? Regulates Body Temp,(heat from skeletal muscles to other regions & to skin to dissapate) Fluid & Electroylyte Balance, & PH regulation
Name some Electrolytes Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Chloride (C1), Bicarbonate (HCO), Phosphate (PO)
What do Electrolytes do? Assists body to bring back into Homeostatis, Lets certain things in/out, opens/closes little doors to let things into cells.
What is DeHydration? Lack of Fluid in cells/outside of cells & tissues.
Name a way that blood "protects" blood has clotting mechanisms; preventing fluid loss thru hermorrage (clotting plugs).
Percentage of Plasma in the blood 55% of the blood volume
Percentage of RBC in the blood 45% pf blood volume
What is the Buffy Coat? consists of WBC & platelets (fighter cells), Forms the white layer between Plasma & RBCs
Describe the connection between Antibodies and the Immune System Antibodies in the plasma (protect against disease) they are little signal carriers to attack & get rid of infection (antigens & bacteria). they latch on to and eat the invader (b-Cells) T-Cells)
Plasma consists of: 90% water H2O & 10% misc chemicals
DeOxyhemoglobin When O2 diffused into tissues, dark red in color (almost purple)
What is a Negative Feedback Mechanism by the Body? constant events in which the body reacts in order to maintain homeostatis (ex. very cold outside, wearing a coat, body temp drops, shivering, produces heat)
What is a Positive Feedback Mechanism by the Body? Body's attempt to bring back to homeostasis in response to an event that has a beginning and an end,(ex. bleeding & clotting, healing)
Erythopoetin Hormone that stimulates RBCs, produced in the liver secreted also to the kidneys (REF) Renal Erythropoetin)
What elements are needed for RBCs? Iron, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid
Anemia is: Lack of RBCs, absence of blood
Intrinsic Factor does what enables absorption of B12 (it is produced in the stomach).
Give some examples of iron rich foods: Leafy Greens, Kale, Black Beans, Spinach
What happens if the Intrinsic Factor isn't allowing B12 to be absorbed Results in PERNICIOUS ANEMA (white skin, pale, cold extremities)
Average Life Span of a RBC aprox 120 days
How many RBCs replaced in a second 2 Million RBCs replaced/second
Name three types of Anemia Aplastic, Pernicious, Sickle Cell (Anemia)
Shape and action of Sickle Cells Shaped like a S or half moon,can't carry enough oxygen, very painful, (not round) and stick or clump in the blood stream (genetic trait)
What does the HIV Virus do to us? HIV attacks the lymphocytes (T-cells) and depletes the immune system, open to infection
Compare WBC to RBC WBC size and volume WBCs are larger than RBCs, there are less of them than RBCs 4,500 to 11,000 cells
T/F WBC do not lose their nucleus True
What is the difference between grandular and non-grandular WBCs Granuels are small particles that help identify appearance for identification
Pertussis whooping cough
Neutrophils facts 50% - 70% of WBCs, first to respond to tissue damage Injury, Increase during acute infection, the engulf bacteria (form wall)
Eosinophil facts Neutralizes histamines & destroy paracitic worms
Basophil facts 0-1% of WBCs, S-shaped, Secrete Histamine, dialates blood vessels (to injured area) (heparin inhibits blood clots)
Thrombosytes facts Platlets, Plugs the hole at the site of the injury, RANGE 150,000 -> 500,000, Devlpd from Red Bone Marrow, they go to the site of the injury and stick together, Triggers Reactions to Mnimize Blood Loss)
Hemo/Stat Stoppage of Bleeding, vascular constriction, Platlet plug formation, coagulation
Where is smooth muscle found in the body? "Tube Like" areas: esphoagus, intestines, stomach, veins/arteries
How do platlets move through the body during homeostasis vs. injury? Normally platlets move freely unless they are reacting to an injury, then they stick together when forming a plug "mesh"
What is coagulation Formation of a Clot
What is Anticoagulation? Factors that INHIBIT blood clotting
What is a ProCoagulant? Factors in the blood that promote clotting
Steps in body's reaction to an injury for scab forming and healing (Fibrinolysis) ProThrombin Activator->Thrombin-> Fibrinogen -> Fibrin
Why does blood have different types? Antigens (A, B, AB, O)
Why does blood have positive & negative distinctions? Antibodies (RH factor - rhyesis monkey)
Type A blood has what antigent A only
Type B blood has what antigen B only
Type AB blood has what antigen Both A and B
Type O blood has what antigen none (neither a nor b)
Type A blood has what Antibodies? B Antibodies in the plasma
Type B blood has what Antibodies A Antibodies in the plasma
Type AB blood has what Antibodies No Antibodies in the plasma
Type O blood has what antibodies BOTH A & B Antibodies in the plasma
Universal Blood RECIPIENT has what blood type AB+
Universal blood DONOR has what blood type O-
What is the composition of blood (what makes up blood)? Plasma 55%, RBC 45%, Buffy Coat (wbc & platlets)
What percentage of water makes up plasma 90%
Name 3 Plasma Proteins Albumins 60%, Globulins 36%, Fibrinogen 4%
Albumin facts Plasma Protein 60%, produced in the liver, plays a role in maintaining fluid balance osmotic
Globulins facts Plasma protein 36%, 3 Types- Alpha & Beta produced in the liver, which xports lips fat-soluble vitamins in blood & GAMMA Globulins - produced in lymphoid tissue -> antibodies that function in immunity
Fibrinogen facts plasma protein 4%, produced in the liver, forms the foundation of the clot, when done in a test tube remaining liquid is a SERUM
Formed Elements RBCs, WBCs, Thrombocytes, Hematopoiesis (production of blood cells)
What is a HEMOCYTOBLAST Stem Cell in the bone marrow from which the 7 different cells lines develop
What is a RETICULOCYTE Immature RBC erythrocyte
ERYTHROCYTE characteristics Most numerous, F=4-5.5; M=4.5-6.2 million RBCs, Mature RBC no nucleus (anucleate)dev from red bone marrow, Xports 02 and lesser extend CO2
Hemoglobin characteristics 1/3 of each RBC, 2 parts: Heme: pigment contains Iron and Globin: protein
Erythropoietic factor stimulates RBC production
Intrinsic Factor Produced by the stomach, Needed for absorption of B12 in intestine, (if not absorbed results in Pernicious Anemia)
Pernicious Anemia Result of B12 not being absorbed into the intestines (Intrisic Factor)
Destruction of Erythrocyte (RBC) 120 days, fragile membrane, Macrophages eat them, replaced w/equal amnt, 2 Million/second, Hemoglobin seperates
Diapedesis (WBC) WBCs moving through capillary walls into tissue spaces
Types of WBCs (leukocytes)5 Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Thrombocytes
Neutrophils first WBC to respond to tissue damage (injury) 50-70%
Eosinophils Neutralizes Histamines, destroys paracitic worms
Basophils S-Shaped, Secretes histamine & Heparin
Histamines do what Dialates blood vessels, increases blood flow to damaged tissues, dilates blood vessels in allergic reactions
Heparin does what inhibits blood clot formation
Lymphocytes do what Produces antibodies, they increase with certain VIRAL Diseases: mono, mumps, chixpox,rubella, viral hep
Monocytes do what Largest of WBCs, U-shaped nucleus,macrophages are Monocytes that leave the blood & enter the tissues,
Macrophages do what they are monocytes that leave the blood & enter the tissues, Engulf bacteria and cellular debris, Finish clean up process started by neutrophils
Thrombocytes do what (also called what) Platlets, they close the breaks in blood vessels, they become sticky and clump together to form platlet plugs, they intiate formation of blood clots
Hemostasis the stoppage of bleeding, 3 processes: Vascular Constriction, Platlet Plug Formation, Coagulation
Vascular Constriction first response to blood vessel injury, contracts smooth muscle in vessel walls (constriction), lasts only a few minutes, secrete a chemical: SEROTONIN
Prothrombin Activator first stage in clotting process - response to injury (tissue damage)
RH factors: which is more prevalent positive or negative 85% are positive
Pulmonary Vessels transport from Right Ventricle to LUNGS and back to Left Atrium
Systemic Vessels carry blood from Left Ventricle to all parts of the body then return it to Right Atrium
Arterioles microscopic arteries
Artery Wall consists of: Tunic Externa, Tunic Media, Tunic Intimia
Why do Arteries have higher pressure? They carry O2 to tissue organs
Capillaries characterists RBCs must go single file, Smallest & most numerous of the blood vessels, form a connection to Vessels that carry blood away from the heart (ARTERIES) and Vessels that return blood to the heart (VEINS)
Vessles that Carry blood TO the Heart VEINS
Vessles that Carry blood AWAY from the heart ARTERIES
Why are capillary walls thin to allow exchange of materials between the blood in the capillary & adjacent tissue cells
Veins characteristics Carry blood TOWARD the heart, have venous (lower pressure due to one way) valves, can hold more blood 70% of blood volume, have 3 layers, but less smooth muscle & conn tissue making vein walls thinner and less rigid than arteries.
Pulmonary Circuit (circulatory pathways) Xports blood from Right side of the heart to the lungs (then returns it to the left side of the heart), Poor 02,
Systemic Circuit (circulatory pathways) Provides blood supply to all body tissues, Carries 02 & nutrients to cells, picks up C02 & waste products, Carries 02 blood FROM Left Ventricle thru arteries to the caps in the tissues, from tissue caps, de02 blood returns thru system of Veins to R atrium
Created by: dwall2674