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7th Grade Science Heredity & Genetics Test

Genetics The study of how traits are inherited. (Example: Blue-eyed mom x blue-eyed dad = blue-eyed baby)
Chromosome Structure in a cell's nucleus that contains genetic material (DNA)
Trait A distinguishing characteristic or quality (Example: eye color, face shape, etc.)
Heredity The passing of traits from parents to offspring. (Example: AA x aa = Aa only)
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism - how its genes look! (Example: AA, Aa or aa)
Phenotype The physical appearance of an organism due to the genes it has. (Example: Tall or short, Blonde or brunette, etc.)
Dominant A genetic trait that is expressed as long as there is one allele present. (Example: AA or Aa - the 'A' trait is expressed.)
Recessive A genetic trait that is expressed only when there are two alleles present. (Example: aa - the 'a' trait is expressed.)
Homozygous (or purebred) Having two identical alleles for a trait. (Example: AA or aa)
True breeding An individual homozygous for a trait - can only pass one of the forms of the gene to its offspring. (Example: AA can only pass 'A' to its offspring aa can only pass 'a' to its offspring.)
Heterozygous (or hybrid) Having two different alleles for a trait. (Example: Aa)
Hybrid An individual heterozygous for a trait - can pass on either form of the allele. (Example: Aa can pass either 'A' or 'a' to its offspring.)
Types of asexual reproduction binary fission (splitting in two)(ex: bacteria), budding (ex: yeast, hydra), regeneration (ex: planarian, starfish), vegetative propagation (ex: onion, strawberry) budding
Nuclueus Control center of the cell
DNA genetic material which is contained in the nucleus.
Chromosomes Human body cells contain 23 sets made of DNA.
How many genes are in each chromosome? Hundreds to thousands.
Genes Specific sections of DNA that code for traits.
Allele Each trait has 2 parts. Each part is called this. They are classified as either dominant or recessive.
Dominant allele Covers up the alleles that are not as strong.
Recessive allele Weaker alleles.