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Chemistry 1211 UGA

Final UGA

What is chemistry? the science that describes matter--its properties, the changes it undergoes and the energy change that accompany those processes
Name the seven fundamental units of measurements and their symbols 1)length: meter - m 2)mass: kilogram - kg 3)time: second - s 4)electric current: ampere - A 5)temperature: kelvin - K 6)luminous intensity: candela - cd 7)amount of substance: mole - mol
Give abbreviation and meaning for following prefixes: 1) mega- 2) kilo- 3) deci- 4)centi- 5) milli- 6)micro- 7) nano- 8)pico- 1)M 1000000 2)k 1000 3)d 0.1 4)c 0.01 5)m 0.001 6)meu 0.000001 7)n 0.000000001 8)p 0.000000000001
Convert these lengths: 1 ft = ? in 1 yd = ? ft 1 mile = ? ft ? cm = 1 in 1 mL = ? cm 1 gal = ? qt 1 L = ? qt 1 lb = ? oz 1 ft = 12 in 1 yd = 3 ft 1 mile = 5280 ft 2.54 cm = 1 in 1 mL = 1 cm (cubed) 1 gal = 4 qt 1 L = 1.057 qt 1 lb = 16 oz
Formula: Percent by mass Mass A / Mass Mixture
Solve: Us pennies made since 1982 consist of 97.6% zinc and 2.4% copper. The mass of a particular penny is measured to be 1.494g. How many grams of zinc does this penny contain? 1.46g zinc
Formula: Density density = mass/volume
Formula: Specific Gravity Sp. Gr. = D substance / D water
Formula: Celsius to Kelvin K = C + 273.15
Formula: Fahrenheit to Celcius C = 5/9 (F - 32)
Formula: Specific Heat amount of heat (J)/ (mass (g) x change in temperature (C))
Solve: How much heat in joules, is required to raise the temperature of 205g of water from 21.2C to 91.4C? 6.02 x 10^4 J
Accuracy how closely a measure value agrees with the correct value
Calorie Defined as exactly 4.184 J. Originally defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5 degrees Celsius to 15.5 degrees celsius
Chemical Change A change in which one or more new substances are formed
Endothermic Describes processes that absorb heat
Energy The capacity to do work or transfer heat
Exothermic Describes processes that release heat energy
Law of Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction or in a physical change; it may be changed from one form to another.
Law of Conservation of Matter No detectable change occurs in the total quantity of matter during a chemical reaction or during a physical change
Law of Conservation of Energy and Matter The combined amount of matter and energy in the universe is fixed
Law of Constant Composition or Law of Definite Proportion Different samples of any pure compound contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.
Precision How closely repeated measurements of the same quantity agree with one another.
Scientific (natural) law A general statement based on the observed behavior of matter to which no exceptions are known
Which of the following processes are exothermic? endothermic? a. burning gasoline b. freezing ice cream c. melting chocolate d. cooling hot water e. condensing water vapor f. burning a match a. exothermic b. exothermic c. endothermic d. exothermic e. exothermic f. exothermic
Which illustrate the concept of potential energy? Kinetic energy? a. a car moving at 55mph b. a rubber band stretched around a paper c. frozen ice cream d. a comet moving through space e. a basketball dropping through a net f. the roof of a house a. kinetic b. potential c. potential d. kinetic e. kinetic f. potential
Molecular Compound : H20 Water
Molecular Compound : H2O2 Hydrogen Peroxide
Molecular Compound : HCl Hydrogen Chloride Hydrochloric acid
Molecular Compound :H2SO4 sulfuric acid
Molecular Compound : HNO3 Nitric Acid
Molecular Compound : CH3COOH Acetic Acid
Molecular Compound : NH3 Ammonia
Molecular Compound : SO2 Sulfur dioxide
Molecular Compound : SO3 Sulfur trioxide
Molecular Compound : CO Carbon monoxide
Molecular Compound : CO2 Carbon dioxide
Molecular Compound : methane CH4
Molecular Compound : ethane C2H6
Molecular Compound : propane C3H8
Molecular Compound : butane C4H10
Molecular Compound : pentane C5H12
Molecular Compound : C6H6 benzene
Molecular Compound : methanol CH3OH
Molecular Compound : ethanol CH3CH2OH
Molecular Compound : CH3COCH Acetone
Molecular Compound : diethyl ether CH3CH2OCH2CH3
Moles 6.022 x 10^23
Solve : How many moles of atoms does 136.9g of iron metal contain? 2.451 mol Fe atoms
Solve : A 0.1014-g sample of purified glucose was burned in a C-H combustion train toproduce 0.1486 g sample of CO2 and 0.0609 g of H2O. Determine the masses of C,H and O in the sample and the percentages of these elements in glucose. %C : 39.99% %H : 6.72% %O : 53.2%
Solve : Calculate the masses of NaOH and impurities in 45.2 g of 98.2% pure NaOH. 44.4 g NaOH 0.81 g impurities
Allotropic Modifications (allotropes) Different forms of the same element in the same physical state
Law of Multiple Proportions When two elements, A and B, form more than one compound, the ration of the masses of element B that combine with a given mass of element A in each of the compounds can be expressed by small whole numbers
Solve : Name each of the following compounds: a)MgCl2 b)Fe(NO3)2 c)Na2SO4 d)Ca(OH)2 e)FeSO4 a)magnesium chloride b)iron(II)nitrate c)sodium sulfate d)Calcium hydroxide e)sodium(III)sulfate
Solve : Testosterone contains only C, H and O. 79.12%C and 9.79%H by mass. Each molecule contains two O atoms. What are a)the molecular weight and b) the molecular formula for testosterone? a) 288.5amu b) C19H28O2
Vegetarians sometimes suffer from the lack of vitamin B12. Each molecule of vitamin B12 contains a single atom of cobalt and is 4.35% cobalt by mass. What is the molecular weight of B12? 1.35 x 10^3 g/mol vitamin B12
Solve : What mass of oxygen is required to react completely 1.20 mol of CH4? CH4 + 2 O2 --->CO2 + 2 H2O 76.8g O2
Formula : percent yield actual yield / theoretical yield x 100%
Formula : Molarity number of moles of solute / number liters of solution V1M1 = V2M2 (for dilution only)
Solve : Commercially available concentrated sulfuric acid is 18.0 M H2SO4. Calculate the volume of concentrated sulfuric acid required to prepare 2.00L of 1.50Molarity H2SO4 solution. 14.7 M H3PO4
Solve : to what volume must a student dilute 50 mL of a solution containing 25mg of AlCl3/mL so that the Al concentrate in the new solution is 0.024Molarity? 0.40L
Formula : mass number Number of protons + number of neutrons Atomic Number + number of neutrons
Solve : The atomic weight of gallium is 69.72 amu. The masses of the naturally occurring isotopes are 68.9257 amu for 69Ga and 70.9249 amu for 71Ga. Calculate the percent abundance of each isotope x(68.9257) + (1-x)(70.9249) = 69.72 amu 60.0% 69Ga 40.0% 71Ga
Formula : Speed of Light or waves (Wavelength)(velocity)
The longer the wavelength, the ______ the amplitude Lower
Formula : Energy of Light E = (plank's constant)(velocity) E = (Plank's constant)(speed of light) / (wavelength)
Formula : Plank's Constant 6.626 x 10^-34 J
Formula : Speed of Light 3.00 x 10^8 m/s
Solve : A green line of wavelength 4.86 x 10^-7 m is observed in the emission spectrum of hydrogen. Calculate the energy of one photon of this green light. 4.09 x 10^-19 J/photon
Formula : de Broglie Wavelength (plank's constant) / (mass x velocity)
Solve : a) Calculate the wavelength in meters of an electron traveling at 1.24 x 10 ^7 m/s. The mass of an electron is 9.11 x 10^-28 g. B) Calculate the wavelength of a baseball of mass 5.25 oz traveling at 92.5 mph. Recall that 1 J = 1 kg x m^2/s^2. a) 5.87 x 10^-11 m b) 1.08 x 10^-34 m
Formula : principal quantum number n = 1, 2, 3, 4... main energy level or shell than an electron occupies
Formula : momentum quantum number l = 0, 1, 2, ...(n-1) Shape of orbital
Formula : magnetic quantum number ml = (-l)...,0,...,(l) which atomic orbital
Formula : spin quantum number ms = positive or negative 1/2 spin of the electron
Absorption Spectrum the spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms resulting from transitions from lower to higher electronic energy states
Aufbau Principle A guide to predicting the order in which electrons fill subshells and shells in atoms
Continuous Spectrum A spectrum that contains all wavelengths in a specified region of the electromagnetic spectrum
Electromagnetic radiation energy that is propagated by means of electric and magnetic fields that oscillate in directions perpendicular to the direction of travel of the energy.
Emission Spectrum The spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms resulting from electron transitions from higher to lower energy states
Ferromagnetism the property that allos a substance to become permanently magnetized when placed in a magnetic field; exhibited by iron, cobalt, and nickel and some of their alloys
frequency the number of crests of a wave that pass a given point per unit time
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously
Hund's Rule Each orbital of a given subshell is occupied by a single electron before pairing begins
Isotopes To or more forms of atoms of the same element with different masses; atoms containing the same number of protons but different neutrons
Paramagnetism Attraction toward a magnetic field, strong than diamagnetism, but still very weak compared with ferromagnetism; due to presence of unpaired electrons
Pauli Exclusion Principle No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of quantum numbers
Photoelectric effect emission of an electron from the surface of a metal, caused by impinging electromagnetic radiation of certain minimum energy; the resulting current increases with increasing intensity of radiation.
Trends : Atomic Radii Decreases Across Periodic Table Increase Down Periodic Table
Trends : Ionization Energy General Trend with Many Exceptions Increasing Across Periodic Table Decreases Down A periodic Table
Trends : Electron Affinity Generally Increases Across Periodic Table Decreases down a periodic table Exceptions: For Rows 2-5 Column V will always be lower than IV and VI. For Rows 2-5 Column III will always be lower than I and for all rows Column II will be the lowest.
Trends : Ionic Radii General Rules Decreases Across Periodic Table Increases Down Periodic Table The more positive an elements valence shell, the smaller it will be.
Trends : Electronegativity Increase across periodic table Decrease down periodic table
Electrolytes substances whose acqeous solutions conduct electric currents. Strong Electrolytes Weak Electrolytes Nonelectrolytes
A) Common strong acids B) Common weak acids A) HCl; HBr; HI; HNO3; HClO4; HClO3; H2SO4 B) HF; CH3COOH; HCN; HNO2; H2CO3; H2SO3; H3PO4; (COOH)2 - oxalic acid
A) Common Strong Bases B) Common Weak Bases A) LiOH; NaOH; KOH; RbOH; CsOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2 B) NH3
Naming : HClO, HClO4, HNO2, HNO3, H3PO2 Hypochlorous acid, perchloric acid, nitrious acid, nitric acid, hypophosphorous acid
Naming : Rules 1. Hypo- -ous/-ite, -ous/-ite, -ic/-ate, per- -ic/-ate 2. When two nonmetals are bonded together, use greek and latin number prefixes one through ten
Oxidation and Reduction Oxidation : increase in oxidation state and corresponds to the loss or apparent loss of electrons Reduction - decrease in oxidation state and corresponds to a gain or apparent gain in electrons
Oxidizing and Reducing Agents OA - 1) oxidize other substances 2)contain atoms that are reduced 3)gained electrons RA - 1)reduce other substances 2)contain atoms that are oxidized 3)lose electrons
Disproportionation reaction redox reaction in which the same element is oxidized or reduced
Redox Reactions Where reducing and oxidizing occur REDOX
Combination Reactions Reactions in which two or more substances combine to form a compound. REDOX
Decomposition Reactions in which a compound decomposes to produce (1) two elements, (2) one or more elements and one or more compounds, (3) two or more compounds REDOX
Displacement Reactions Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound REDOX
Matathesis Reaction In many reactions between two compounds in aqueous solution, the positive and negative ions appear to "change partners" to form two new compounds, with no change in oxidation numbers. NOT REDOX
Gas Formation Reaction Products include an insoluble or slightly soluble gas, which escapes from solution
Bond Lengths and Strengths A) Single Bond B) Double Bond C) Triple Bond A) Longest and weakest B) Medium and Medium C) Shortest and strongest
Electronic and Molecular Geometry : Linear 180(deg) angles AB2 No Lone Pairs Hybridization = sp
Electronic and Molecular Geometry : Trigonal Planar 120(deg) angles AB3 AB2U - bent Hybridization - sp2
Electronic and Molecular Geometry : Tetrahedral 109.5 (deg) angles AB4 AB3U - Trigonal pyramidal AB2U2 - Bent Hybridization - sp3
Electronic and Molecular Geometry : Trigonal Bipyramidal 90(deg), 120(deg), 180(deg) angles AB5 AB4U - seesaw AB3U2 - t-shaped AB2U3 - linear Hybridization - sp3d
Electronic and Molecular Geometry : Octahedral 90(deg) and 180(deg) angles AB6 AB5U - square pyramidal AB4U2 - square planar Hybridization - sp3d2
Sigma Bond a bond resulting from head on overlap of atomic orbitals single bonds, double and triple bonds have one sigma bond
Pi Bond bond resulting from side-on overlap of atmoic orbitals double bonds - one pi bond triple bond - two pi bonds
Formula : Bond Order (number of bonding electrons) - (number of antibonding electrons / 2
Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids sour taste, change colors of indicators, Nonoxidizing acids react with metal above hydrogen to liberate hydrogen gas, acids react with metal oxides and hydroxides to form salts and water, acids react with salts of weaker acids and form weaker acids
Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Bases Bitter taster, slippery feeling, change color of indicators from red to blue and yellow to blue, reacts with acids to form salts and water, conduct an electric current
Arrhenius Theory an acid is a substance that contains hydrogen and produces H+ in aqueous solution. a base is a substance that contains the OH group and produces OH- in aqueous solution
Bronsted-Lowry Theory An acid is defined as a proton donor (H+) and a base is defined as a proton acceptor. The stronger the acid, the weaker is its conjugate base. Water can act as either acid or base
Lewis Theory An acid is any species that can accept a share in an electron pair. A abse is any species that can donate or share one or more lone pairs of electrons.
Boyle's Law At a given temperature, the product of pressure and volume of a definite mass of gas is constant
Formula : Boyle's law PV = k P1V1 = P2V2
Charles Laws At constant pressure, the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature
Formula : Charles Law V = kT (temperature K) V1/T1 = V2/T2
Standard Temperature and Pressure One atmosphere, 273 Kelvin
Formula : Combined Gas Law
Standard Molar Volume 22.414 L at STP
Formula : The Ideal Gas Equation PV=nRT (Pressure)(Volume)=(Moles)(Ideal Gas Constant)(Temperature)
Formula : Ideal Gas Constant 0.0821 (L)(atm)/(mol)(K) 8.314 (J)/(mol)(K) 8.314 (kPa)(dm^3)/(mol)(K)
Dalton's Law of Pressure The total pressure exerted by a mixture or ideal gases is the sum of the partial pressures of those gases
Formula : Dalton's Law of Pressure Ptotal = n1RT/V + n2RT/V + n3RT/V .... Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3....
Kinetic Molecular Theory the average kinetic energy of gaseous molecules is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the sample. The average kinetic energies of molecules of different gases are equal at a given temperature
Formula : Kinetic Molecular Theory Average molecular speed = Sqr.root(T/molecular weight)
Formula : Molecular Speed Sqare.Root (3RT/molecular weight)
Created by: ems693