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Russia TEST review

Wold Geo Dec 2011 Test

Eurasia the combined continent of Europe and Asia
Transcaucasia A region consisting of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia
Siberia a vast Asian region of Russia
Tiaga a forest of mostly evergreens that covers half of Russia
Baltic Republics The countries of Lativa, Lithuania, and Estonia, located on the eastern coast of the Baltic sea
Czar a male monarch or emperor (especially of Russia prior to 1917)
Vladimir Lenin Founder of the Russian Communist Party, this man led the November Revolution in 1917 which established a revolutionary soviet government based on a union of workers, peasants, and soldiers.
Russian Revolution Prompted by labor unrest, personal liberties, and elected representatives, this political revolution occurred in 1917 when Czar Nicholas II was murdered and Vladimir Lenin sought control to implement his ideas of socialism.
USSR the union of soviet socialist republics, or soviet union, formed in 1922 by the communists and officially dissolved in 1991
Karl Marx founder of modern communism
Command economy a system in which the central government makes all economic decisions
Collective farms a farm where the land is owned by the government but rented to a family which was done a lot in Russia under Stalin
Red Army army of the former Soviet Union, formed after the revolution of 1917
Privatization Selling state-owned industries to private investors
Steppe a dry, grassy, treeless plain found in Asia and eastern Europe
Soviet one of the local representative councils formed in Russia after the downfall of Czar Nicholas II
Glastnost the Soviet Union's plan to allow more political freedom in the 1980's--Gorbechev was the leader "Openness"
Perestroika A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to revitalize the Soviet economy by opening it up to more free enterprise
Permafrost ground that is permanently frozen
Abdicate give up, such as power, as of monarchs and emperors, or duties and obligations
Cold War This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
Iron Curtain an impenetrable barrier to communication or information especially as imposed by rigid censorship and secrecy
Silk Road an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)
Gulag Forced labor camps set up by Stalin for political dissidents.
Chernozem a rich topsoil found in the Russian steppes and other mid-latitude grasslands
Distance Decay The effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction. For example, the problem of Moscow influcencing the pacific port city of Vladivostok because so far apart
Aral sea a lake east of the Caspian Sea lying between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan that has , lost 80% of water volume from irrigation projects
Dachas Russian country homes used by people for weekends and vacations
Banyas bathhouse in which russians perform a cleaning ritual that combines a dry sauna, steam bath, and plunge into ice-cold water
Know what happened in Chernobyl and the consequences of the disaster nuclear fallout disaster in 1986. Nuclear plant in Chernobyl, Soviet Union exploded, released highly radioactive fallout into the atmosphere. Large areas were contaminated. 336,000 people evacuated.Driver to GLASTNOST and slowed SOVIET expansion.
Know the Russian leaders and timeline starting with Nicholas II through current see slide
What was Czar Nicholas II dates and actions? last Czar of Russia. A Romanov 1894-1917 Ordered Russia into WWI against Germany Abdicated after Russian Revolution by Bolchivics
What was Alexander Kerensky's dates and role? 1917, temporary beteen Nicholas II and Lenin. First Soviet Russia head
Vladimir Lenin's dates and actions 1917-1922 spread communism his death set off a fearsome power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky with terrible consequences for the Russian people.
Joseph Stalin's dates and actions 1922-53 Head of Russia during WWII. Put Communist governments in E Europe forming 'Iron Curtain'. Launched the long 'cold war'. Collective farms.14 million died. Death warrants written on 600,000. 30 million killed in wars/opposition. Great Terror
Nikita Kruschev's dates and actions 1953-64 Dedicated to the 'de-Stalinization' of USSR head of Russia during Cuban Missle Crisis when Kennedy was US President. Famous for 'taking off his shoe and banging it on the table at the UN meeting'. His wild behavior had him replaced.
Leonid Brezhnev's dates and actions 1964-82
Yuri Andropov's dates and actions 1982-84
Konstantin Chemenko dates 1984-5
Mikhail Gorbachev dates and actions 1985-91. Tried to give people more freedom. Saw fall of the USSR USSR was in such poor shape financially that even Gorbachev's mother could not get medicine
Boris Yeltsin dates and actions 1991-99. Russia again. first premier of the now-disolved USSR that is Russia again.
Vladimir Putin dates and actions 1999-present has tried to improve the economy. Some 'capitalism'
Identify the different political and economic policies of Russia and the Republics. communism free market economy glasnost perestroika modernization
define Communism a system of social organization in which all economic and social activity is controlled by a totalitarian state dominated by a single and self-perpetuating political party. Economic ideas from Karl Marx (a German)Command System Economy-central control.
define free market economy an economic system in which prices and wages are determined by unrestricted competition between businesses, without government regulation
define russian economic change to 'modernization' Mendevev started in 2009. aims at modernising Russia's economy. decreaes country's dependency on oil.creating a diversified economy based on high technology
Be able to identify a timeline for the political systems of Russia and the Soviet Union 1917-Nicholas II Autocracy end. 1917-Russian Revolution. 1917 -Communism, Lenin. 1924-53 Communism Stalin WWII. 1941-45 Russia/US allies in WWII. 1953-Khrushchev peaceful coexistence. 1985- Gorbachev-Glastnost 1991- USSR falls. 1991- Yeltsin.Russia
What is the religion of most Russians Orthodox Christian
What body of water is shrinking due to intensive irrigation? Aral Sea for example, water diverted to irrigate cotton fields in Uzbekistan. Sea polluted from runoff of fertilizers.
How do the majority of Siberians travel around Russia? Trans Siberian Railway, longest railway in the world
What is climate and population distribution in Siberia? Why is Siberia sparsely populated? 32 million in siberia Temp range from -94 to + 94 F. So cold it hurts Summer not relief, get pools of water and mosquitos. Permafrost melts if you put heated house on it and house sinks, so use stilts for houses.
What physical feature divides Europe and Asia? Ural Mountains
Define the cold war 45 year competition about values. Ran from end of WWI to collapse of Soviet Union in 1991. Through 8 US presidents.
What countries were involved in the Cold war? US and Western Europe (NATO) vs. USSR. USSR formed pact with Eastern Europe called Warsaw Pact in 1950.
What were the dates of the cold war? 1945-1991
Why was the cold war started? US and USSR were only super powers after WWII Political change in Europe because so destroyed and in poverty by WWII. Would countries become communist? USA's 'Truman Doctrine' to stop spread of communism = containment. All fear nuclear war.
How was the cold war ended? economic fall of USSR in 1991
What were the conflicting ideologies of the cold war? Communism vs. capitalism Government ownership vs. private ownership
What was the Marshall Plan? What did it have to do with the Cold War? US wanted Europe as allies against communism rather than countries in poverty going toward communism. US Paid europe countries $12.5 B if rejected communism following WWII.
What was the Russian revolution? Bolsheviks (the Red Army) overthrew and assasinated the Czar, Nicholas II in 1917. Left the way free for Marxism, the new economic philosophy of common state ownership. Lenin was a Bolshivic and lead the country. Marxism became called communism.
What did the people want russians were starving. Worked 11 hours a day, unsafe factories, poor rights. People wanted rights, better working and life conditions.
Who were the main players? Nicholas II (assasinated) Bolshevics = Red Army = revolt Lenin = new Bolshevic leader becomes head of Communist Russia
Who were the Bolsheviks? The Bolsheviks, founded by Vladimir Lenin, were primarily workers governed by the principle of democratic centralism, who considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia
Who was the Red Army? renamed the Soviet Army in 1946. Army of the Soviet Union. Formed in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1917, its first civilian leader was Leon Trotsky,
Who supported the Red Army? workers and peasants of the Russia revolutionaries.
Who was Karl Marx? What did he do? What was he the father of? German philosopher. Wrote The Communist Manifesto. Believed there was too much class struggle. Opposed to capitalism. Believed best was a 'classless' society called pure Communism. Father of communism.
What quote from Karl Marx was the rally cry for communism and the Russian Revolution? "dictatorship of the proletariat", the "workers state" or "workers' democracy
Why is Russia experiencing political and economic problems today? What is the climate of Russia today? Economic reforms in 1990s privatized most industry. The rapid privatization process turned over major state-owned firms to politically connected "oligarchs". As of 2011,Moscow, now has the highest billionaire population of any city in the world.
Why is there a rise of nationalist feelings in Russia? With fall of USSR in 1991, Orthodox Christian church regained power and is source of much pride. On the negative side of nationalism, much feeling against immigrants because they compete with the native population for jobs in the recession economy.
Define Cyrillic slavic alphabet derived from Greek
Define matryoshkas Russian nesting dolls
Created by: stinglasher23