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Kiser semester 2

College History

1. Jeffersonian Democracy A movement for more democracy in American government in the first decade of the nineteenth century. The movement was led by President Thomas Jefferson. Jeffersonian democracy was less radical than the later Jacksonian democracy. For example, where Jackson
2. *Jacksonian Democracy- A movement for more democracy in American government in the 1830s. Led by President Andrew Jackson, this movement championed greater rights for the common man and was opposed to any signs of aristocracy in the nation. Jacksonian democracy was aided by the
3. Essex Junto a group of political conspirators who sought power outside of the regular political process composed of radical federalists in Essex County, Massachusetts, who at first advocated constitutional changes that would favor New England politically and later ca
4. Embargo Act Embargo(A government-ordered trade ban) announced by Jefferson in 1807 in order to pressure Britain and France to accept neutral trading rights; it went into effect in 1808 and closed down all U.S. foreign trade.
5. Impressment Procedure permitted under British maritime law that authorized commanders of warships to force English civilian sailor into military.
6. James Monroe Republican politician from Virginia who served in diplomatic posts under George Washington, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson; later he became the fifth president of the United States.
7. War Hawks Members of Congress elected in 1810 from the west and south who campaigned for war with Britain in the hopes of stimulating the economy and annexing new territory.
8. The Prophet (tenskwataw) Shawnee religious visionary who called for a return to Indian traditions and founded the community of Prophetstown on Tippecanoe Creek in Indiana
9. Tecumseh Shawnee leader and brother of the prophet; he established an Indian confederacy along the frontier that he hoped would be a barrier to white expansion.
10. Macon’s Bill #2 Law passed by congress in 1810 that offered exclusive trading rights to France or Britian, whichever recognized American Neutral rights first.
11. Battle of Tippecanoe Battle near Prophetstown in 1811, where American forces led by William Henry Harrison defeated the followers of the Shawnee Prophet and destroyed the town.
12. Andrew Jackson General who defeated the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend in 1814 and the British at New Orleans in 1815; he later became the seventh president of the United States.
13. Francis Scott Key Author of “The Star-Spangled Banner,” which chronicles the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in 1814; Key’s poem, set to music, became the official U.S. national anthem in 1931.
14. Battle of Horseshoe Bend Battle in 1814 in which Tennessee militia massacred Creek Indians in Alabama, ending Red Stick resistance to white westward expansion.
15. *Battle of New Orleans - Battle in the War of 1812 in which American troops commanded by Andrew Jackson destroyed the British force attempting to seize New Orleans.
16. Eli Whitney American inventor and manufacturer; his perfecting of the cotton gin revolutionized the cotton industry.
17. Cumberland road the initial section of what would be called the national road, a highway built with federal funds; this section stretched from Cumberland Maryland, to wheeling, Virginia. Later the road would be extended to Vandalia.
18. American system an economic plan sponsored by nationalists in congress; it was intended to capitalize on regional differences to spur U.S. economic growth and the domestic production of goods previously bought from foreign manufacturers.
19. Erie canal 350 mile canal stretching from buffalo to Albany; it revolutionized shipping New York state.
20. Monroe doctrine president Monroe’s 1823 statement declaring the Americas closed to further European colonization and discouraging European interference in the affairs of the western hemisphere.
21. Missouri compromise Law proposed by Henry clay in 1820 admitting Missouri to the union as a slave state and Maine as a free state and banning slavery in the Louisiana territory north of latitude 36 30.
22. Indian removal act Law passed by congress in 1830 providing for the removal of all Indian tribes east of the Mississippi and the purchase of western lands for their resettlement.
23. Trail of tears- forced march of the Cherokee people from Georgia to Indian Territory in the winter of 1838, during which thousands of Cherokees died.
24. Martin Van Buren New York politician known for his skillful handling of part politics; he helped found the democratic party and later became the eighth president of the united states.
25. Interchangeable parts parts that are identical and which can be substituted for one another.
26. Joseph smith Jr founder of the church of Jesus Christ of latter-day saints, also known as the Mormon church, who transcribed the book of Mormon and led his congregation westward from new York to Illinois; he was later murdered by an anti-Mormon mob.
27. Brigham young- Mormon leader who took over in 1844 after Joseph smith’s death and guided the Mormons from Illinois to Utah, where they established a permanent home for the church.
28. Baltimore and Ohio railroad First steam railroad commissioned in the united states; it resorted to using horse-drawn cars after a stagecoach horse beat its pioneer locomotive in a race.
29. Telegraph- device invented by Samuel F.B. Morse in 1836 that transmits coded messages along a wire over long distances; the first electronic communications device.
30. Manifest Destiny new spirit that came to life in American politics and rhetoric in the years after 1840 found expression in a single phrase.
31. William Henry Harrison united part’s first national candidate was a colorful figure in American westward expansion. War Hawk and Indian fighter.
32. Winfield Scott- Virginia soldier and statesman who led troops in war of 1812 and the war with Mexico; he was still serving as a general at the start of the civil war.
33. Antonio López de Santa Anna- Mexican general who was president of Mexico when he led an attack on the Alamo in 1836; he again led Mexico during its war with united states in 1846-1848
34. *Texas Revolution a revolt by American colonists in Texas against Mexican rule; it began in 1835 and ended with the establishment of the republic of Texas in 1836
35. *Alamo a fortified Franciscan mission at San Antonio; rebellious Texas colonists were besieged and annihilated there by Santa Anna’s forces in 1836.
36. *Sam Houston American general and politician who fought in the struggle for Texas’s independence from Mexico and became the president of the Republic of Texas.
37. Battle of San Jacinto Ended the Texas revolutionary war, along with the treaty of Velasco. Lasted 18 minutes.
38. Treaty of Velasco treaty that Santa Anna signed in may 1836 after his capture at the San Jacinto River; it recognized the republic of Texas but was later rejected by the Mexican congress.
39. Mexican American War a war between the U.S. and Mexico over borders and the U.S. annexing.
40. Battle of Buena Vista Battle in February 1847 during which U.S. troops led by Zachary Taylor forced Santa Anna’s forces to withdraw into the interior of Mexico.
41. Battle of Vera Cruz- treaty that ended the republic of texas and mexico.
42. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty (1848) in which Mexico gave up Texas above the Rio Grande and ceded New Mexico and California to the United States in return for $15 Million.
43. *Border states Slave states on the border between the North and the South that stayed in the Union. These included Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware.
44. *Underground railroad- The secret network of northerners who helped fugitive slaves escape to Canada or to safe areas in Free states. This covert network provided hiding places and aid for runaway slaves along routes designed to carry them from southern plantation through Ameri
Created by: 13kiserc