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Regulation Behavior

Reproductive Physiology and Behavior

Reproductive Systems and Strategies Asexual: Fission (i.e. unicellular organisms), Partheogenesis: Virgin birth obligatory/occassional (i.e. Amazon mollies, whiptail lizards, Aphids) Sexual: - Hermaphroditism (sperm AND eggs): Simultaneous/Serial (i.e. Many invertebrates (Aplysia), Some fishes) - Gonochorism (sperm OR eggs): Sexually dimorphic (most mammals), Sexually monomorphic (many birds)
Mating Strategies Birds: most common - monogamy Mammals: most common - promiscuity
Stages of Reproductive Behavior Courtship: Attraction, Appetitive Behavior • Estrus. The periodic state most female mammals are receptive to mating (precedes ovulation). • Pheromones: maybe cardinal signal btw potential mates • Proceptive behavior: ear-wiggling, hop-darting. • Lord Copulation Comparative:• Variations in female behavior – Estrus in many but not all mammals – ovarian cyclicity – Induced ovulation (mechanical, hormonal) • Copulatory lock • Number of intromissions - Prolactin • Coolidge effect –refractory period
Interaction between hormones and behavior Number of intromissions causes increase in prolactin in female to permit implantation of fertilized egg. .
Effects of manipulation of hormone levels castration/testosterone therapy effects on high drive, medium drive, low drive .
Human Sexual Behavior • Kinsey Report -first descriptive information -surprising findings: prevalence of masturbation, homosexuality, etc. • Masters and Johnson -detailed physiology of copulation and sexual responses in men and women -first scientific evidence of female ..
Phases of Sexual Differentiation 1: SRY gene expression by week 7 if XY. 2: If SRY protein is present, testis (testosterone/MRH secretion)(otherwise:ovary: little hormone secretion) 3: If testes, MRH causes mullerian system to regress, and testosterone causes wolffian system to develop If ovaries, wolffian system spontaneously regresses and mullerian system develops. 4: If testes, 5-alpha-reductase in genital skin converts T to DHT > male external genitalia. Ovaries, peripheral tissue and genital tubercle -> female external genitalia
XO Genotype: Turner Syndrome . .
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia intersex phenotype .
XY Genotype/androgen insensitivity . .
Organizational versus activational effects . .
Aromatase System
Neurochemistry of Sexual behavioral Prairie Voles: more oxytocin Montane Voles .
Brain Dimorphisms Rat: -Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus of the Preoptic Area (smaller in females) Humans: Hypothalamic Nuclei and Sexual Orientation -INAH 1-4: smaller in homosexual men .
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Created by: brown55