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GEOG 1101 Ch. 8

key terms

Agrarian referring to the culture of agricultural communities and the type of tenure system that determines access to land and the kind of cultivation practices employed there.
Agribusiness a set of economic and political relationships that organizes agro-food production from the development of seeds to the retailing and consumption of the agricultural product.
Agriculture a science, an art, and a business directed at the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance and for profit.
Commercial agriculture farming primarily for sale, not direct consumption.
Crop rotation method of maintaining soil fertility in which the fields under cultivation remain the same, but the crop being planted is changed.
Famine acute starvation associated with a sharp increase in mortality.
Fast food edibles that can be prepared and served, very quickly, sold in a restaurant and than served to customers in packaged form.
Food security a person, a household, or even a country has assured access to enough food at all times to ensure active and healthy lives.
Food sovereignty the right of peoples, communities, and countries to define their own agricultural, labor, fishing, food, and land policies that are ecologically, socially, economically, & culturally appropriate to their unique circumstances.
Globalized agriculture a system of food production increasingly dependent upon an economy and set of regulatory practices that are global in scope and organization.
Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) any organism that has had its DNA modified in a lab rather than through cross-pollination or other forms of evolution.
Green revolution the export of a technological package of fertilizers and high-yielding seeds, from the core to the periphery, to increase global agricultural productivity.
Hunting and Gathering activities whereby people feed themselves through killing wild animals and fish and gathering fruit, roots, nuts, and other edible plants to sustain themselves.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture practice that involves the effective and efficient use ---- usually through a considerable expenditure of human labor & application of fertilizer --- of a small parcel of land in order to maximize crop yield.
Organic farming any farming or animal husbandry that occurs without commercial fertilizers, synthetic pesticides or growth hormones.
Pastoralism subsistence activity that involves the breeding and herding of animals to satisfy the human needs of food, shelter, and clothing.
Shifting cultivation a system in which farmers aim to maintain soil fertility by rotating the fields within which cultivation occurs.
Slash-and-Burn the system of cultivation in which plants are cropped close to the ground, left to dry for a period, and then ignited.
Subsistence agriculture farming for direct consumption by the producers; not for sale.
Undernutrition inadequate intake of one or more nutrients and/or calories.
Urban agriculture the establishment or performance of agricultural practices in or near an urban or city-like setting.
Created by: kbtwomey