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human muscles

what is the function of the muscular system body movement maintenance of posture respiration production of body heat communication and constriction of organs and vessels
Skeletal Muscle constitutes 40% of body weight are attached to the skeletal system
Striated Muscle tranverse bands can be seen in muscle under microscopes
Contractility ability for muscles to retract with force
Excitability muscles responding to stimuli usually by nerves
Extensibility muscles can be stretched
Elasticity when muscles recoil to their original resting length after being stretched
structual parts epimysium fascia muscle fasciculi perimysium muscle cells endomysium sarcoplasm myofibril actin myofilaments troponin tropomyosin myofilaments myosin sarcomeres Z disk I band A band H zone M line sarcolemma tranverse T tubes Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Membrane potential the charge difference from the outside and inside of the cell membranes
Motor Neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
Muscular junction or Synapse a junction between a neuron and a muscle fiber or effector cell
Presynaptic Terminal the enlarged axon terminal
Synaptic Cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle fiber
Postsynaptic terminal muscle fiber membrane that contains many vesicles
Acetycholinesterase the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine, in the synaptic cleft
Acetycholine ACH, functions as a neurotransmitter, inhabits a postsynaptic cell
Neurotransmitter a molecule released by a presynaptic cell that stimulates or inhibits a postsynaptic cell
Sliding Filament Mechanism the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction
Cross-Bridges when the actin myofilament binds to the heads of myosin myofilaments
Rigor Mortis when a person dies and the ATP is not available, so the cross bridges arent released, causing muscles to stiffen
Muscle twitch a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes action potentials
Threshold level when the stimulus strength is strong enough to produce an action potential
All or None response when a muscle fiber contracts maximally
contraction phase the time when the muscle is actually contracting
Relaxation phase when the muscles relax
tetanus when muscle remains contracted between stimuli without relaxing
Recruitment the increase in the number of motor units being activated
Creatine phosphate high energy molecule that is used rapidly to maintain adequate ATP in contracting muscles
Anaerobic Respiration occurs in the absence of oxygen and results in breaking down of glucose to get ATP and lactic acid
Aerobic Respiration requires oxygen and breaks down glucose to get ATP water and carbon dioxide
Muscle Fatigue when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster then it can be removed
Physiological Contraction when muscles can't contract or relax because of extreme muscle fatigue
Psychological Fatigue most common type of fatigue, involves central nervous system, but person perceives that they cant contract muscle any more
Muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body over long periods of time
slow and fast twitch fibers differences in rod portion of myosin myofilament, slow twitch fibers have type 1 myosin and fast have either type IIa or IIx myosin
Myoglobin supplies richer blood, it stores oxygen temporarily and releases oxygen even when the blood flow is interrupted
Smooth Muscle small and spindle shaped, usually one nucleus per cell, organized to form layers and have gap junctions found in hollow organs and glands and is involuntary
Cardiac Muscle long straited and branching found in heart and single central intercalated disks, involuntary
Tendon it is what connects muscle to bone,
Origin AKA the head, most stationary end of the muscle
Insertion the end of muscle that is attached to the bone undergoing the greatest movement
Antagonist a muscle working in opposition to another muscle
Synergists muscles that work together to cause movement
Prime Mover the one muscle that plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement
Fixator are muscles that hold one bone in place relative to the body while a usually more distal bone is moved
Created by: hayboy