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Microbio 1 Final

sterile free of microorganisms
inoculum a culture medium in which microorganisms are implanted
culture microorganisms that grow & multiply in a container of culture medium
colony a visible mass of microbial cells arising from 1 cell or from a group of the same microbes
sterilization the removal of all microorganisms, including endospores
disinfection Process used to destroy microorganisms; destroys all pathogenic organisms except spores
sepsis the presence of pus-forming bacteria or their toxins in the blood or tissues
sanitation maintaining a clean condition in order to promote hygiene and prevent disease
aseptic free from disease-causing microorganism
antiseptic a substance that destroys micro-organisms that carry disease without harming body tissues
-cide to kill
rate of microbial death factors # of orgs: how long it takes to reduce the # of orgs to a given level environmental influences: heat lowers pH, org matter may interfere time of exposure: longer/shorter exposures to heat characteristics: diff susceptiilities to physical & chem contro
how do microbial control agents alterate membrane permeability? alterations: susceptibility of the plasma membrane is due to its lipids & protein components; certain chemical control agents damage plasma membrane
how do microbial control agents damage proteins/nucleic acids? damages: some microbial control agents damage cellular proteins by breaking H+ bonds & covalent bonds; other agents interfere with DNA & RNA replication & protein synthesis
symbiosis the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent
types of symbiosis commensalism: 1 organism benefits, the other is unaffected mutualism: both organisms benefit parasitism: 1 organism benefits by deriving nutrients at the expense of the other
nosocomial infections Infections acquired in a hospital or other healthcare setting.
Koch's postulates 1) Pathogen must be present in all disease cases 2) Isolate pathogen, cultivate in pure culture 3) Inoculate into susceptible animal, initiate disease symptoms 4) Re-isolate pathogen, confirm it's the same pathogen
how did koch's work contribute to the study of microbio? provided a framework for the study of the etiology of any infectious disease
symptoms changes in body function
signs seen heard measured or felt
syndrome a group of symptoms or signs that collectively characterize or indicate a disease, disorder, abnormality, etc.
epidemic short term
incidence # of people in a population who develop disease in a particular time period
pandemic worldwide
endemic constantly present
latent inactive for a while then resents signs/symptoms
3 portals of entry Mucous Membranes, skin, & Parenteral
diseases caused by exotoxins diptheria, botulism, tetanus, cholera, food poisoning, TSS
how does antigenic variation benefit a pathogen? by the time the body mounts an immune response against a pathogen, the pathogen has already altered its antigens & is unaffected by antibodies
herd immunity individuals of a population will be protected from a disease to prevent its rapid spread to those in the population who are not vaccinated; many immune people present in a community
morbidity the relative incidence of a particular disease
mortality the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area
what factors contribute to the emergence of new infectious diseases? new strains, global warming/weather pattern changes, widespread use of antibiotics/pesticides, known diseases spread to different regions, animal control measures, unrecognized infections in regions undergoing ecological changes by natural disaster, wars
why do certain diseases have to be reported to the US public health service? provides epidemiologists with an approximation of incidence & prevalence of a disease, info helps officials decide whether or not to investigate, possible to control measures to stop disease from spreading
optimal pH for most bacterial growth? 6.5-7.5
how can high osmotic pressure be used to control microbial growth? high concentrations of salt or sugar inhibit microbial growth, loss of water from microbe inhibits metabolic functions of cell
biofilms Surface coating colonies which secrete signalling molecules that recruit nearby cells causing the colony to grow. These cells also produce proteins that adhere to substrate and allow nutrients to reach the center and for wastes to be expelled.
culture medium nutrients prepared for microbial growth
how many ATP are produced for each NADH mol? 1 ATP = 6 NADH
how many ATP are produced for each FADH mol? 1 ATP = 2 FADH
fermentation a process in which an agent causes an organic substance to break down into simpler substances
lactic acid fermentation The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide; bacteria only
alcohol fermentation Glycolysis followed by the conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.
Linnaeus binomial system of nomenclature
hooke corks; 1st to document seeing cell in microscope
leeuwenhoek made microscopes as hobby, using his own bodily fluids as slides
virchow biogenesis & cell theory
pasteur rabies vaccine, proved biogenesis
semmelweis handwashing
lister sterilization in OR
koch tb
jenner smallpox vaccine
ehrlich blood/brain barrier
flemming penicillin
golden age of microbio fermentation, germ theory of disease, vaccinations
domains bacteria: animals, plants, fungi, protists archaea: prokaryotes that lack peptidolglycan cell walls eukarya: all pathogenic & many nonpathogenic prokaryotes
endosymbiotic theory of origin of eukaryotes larger bacterial cells that lost theis cell walls & engulfed smaller bacteria cells, 1st euk cells evolved from prok cells, proks & euks differ mainly in that euks contain highly specific organelles
what evidence suggests that mitochondria & chloroplasts were once free-living bacteria? their ribosomes resemble that of proks & their mechanism of protein syn is more similar to that found in bacteria than euks
prokaryotic species A population of cells with similar characteristics
viral species a group of viruses sharing the same genetic information and ecological niche
culture bacteria grown at a given time in media
clone pure culture, population of cells derived form a single parent cell
strain pure cultures of same species are not identical in all ways
glycocalyx a capsule made up of a fuzzy coat of sticky sugars
capsule a sticky, gelatinous substance around the cell wall; allows cells to stick together or to the host cell
slime coat loose and unorganized glycocalyx
EPS helps cells in biofilms attach to target enviros & each other
gram + less lipids in their cell wall, thick pglycan wall, 2 inner rings
Gram -
4 essential elements that make up biological organisms carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen
ionic bond the attraction between oppositely charged ions
covalent bond a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
hydrogen bond Weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom
synthesis reaction a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound A+B=AB
decomposition reaction break into smaller parts AB=A+B
exchange reaction part synthesis, part decomp AB+CD=AD+BC
organic compounds contain carbon & hydrogen, structurally complex
inorganic compounds smally & simple, lack carbon
hydrolysis a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds H+ & OH- of water mol
dehydration synthesis process where water is removed to put 2 smaller molecules together
acid compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
base any substance that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in water
salt dissolves in water to cations & anions, neither of which is H+ or OH-
oxidation-reduction reaction any chemical change in which one species is oxidized (loses electrons) and another species is reduced (gains electrons)
cellular respiration process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
aerobic respiration cellular respiration that uses oxygen, sequentially releasing energy and storing it in ATP final e- acceptor: O2
anaerobic respiration Respiration in the absence of oxygen. This produces lactic acid. final e- acceptor: NOT O2
glycolysis a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP net gain of 2 mols/1 mol glucose
products of Kreb's cycle 3 nadh, 1 fadh2, 2 carbon dioxide, atp
electron transport chain A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
chemiosmotic model of ATP generation proton pumps pump electrons out of hte membrane to produce electrochemical gradient. Then diffuses across using ATP synthase, synthesizing ATP from ADP+Pi= 34 ATP
Created by: 100001743129170