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312- Decisive battle at Milvion Bridge into Rome. Vision of the Chi Ro, "With this sign, you shall conquer." Attributes victory to Christian God.
313- Authors a document called the edict of Milan.
Edict of Milan Legalizes Christianity in the empire does not outlaw others.
325 Constantine founds new capital in the East... on the Greek site of Byzantine, called Constantionople. Proclaims official Religion of Empire.
337 Constantine's death. Baptized on Death Bed.
Loculi Shelf-like opening catacombs placed one above each other
Cubicula A small room within the catacombs for families
Didactic Teaching
Typology Comparing old and New Testament
Nave Main Central Wide aisle
Aisles Flank the central nave
Apse Usually in the East, semicircular niche behind the alter
Transept Transverse arm, cuts across end of nave (adds space, makes cross.)
Narthex Intermediary space between indoors and house of God.
Atrium Open, colinated courtyard
S. Maria Maggiore First church dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Begun in 432.
Theotokos Bearer of God- previously called "Hand Maiden of God, Vessel of Christ." Narrative cycle on messaic on squares in interior of Nave- Old Testament scenes. (42, 36 survived.)
Colophon page of the Lindisfarne Gospel Colophon is the last page of a book. An inscription or entry added to give us information on the books production. Glossed. A brief explanation found in the margins.. Glossed inter linearly, in English. First time.
Last Roman left power in... 476
Ottomans take over in 1453
Byzantium is the... Buffer between Europe and Asia, the buffer of Islam's spread.
Golden Age of Byzantium- Justienien's reign, 6th Century.
Theodora Justinien's wife, a pornstar. Precopious book called the Secret History written about her... Geese. Crowned co-ruler of Byzantium.
Mount Sinai is in Egypt
St. Catherine The spot at Mt. Sinai where Moses heard the voice of God/ burning Bush.
Sutton Hoo Southern England. Found in 1939, based on the dreams of Edith May Pretty. Found Ship burial, intact. 89 feet long, 14 wide. 27 mounds.
Lindesfarne NorthUmbria
Iona Scotland
Durrow Ireland
Aachen Germany
Middle Ages- 400-1400. Period of fusion.
St. Patrick 432
Began in Iona finished in Ireland in he 9th Century The Book of Kells
aisle The portion of a basilica flanking the nave and separated from it by a row of columns or piers.
ambulatory A covered walkway; especially the passageway around the apse and the choir of a basilica plan or central plan church.
anagogical axis Anagogical means spiritual or mystical; an axis is a straight line. The anagogical axis of a work of art is the invisible line on which all of the most spiritual or mystical elements are arranged or lined up.
apse A recess, usually singular and semi-circular, in the wall of a Roman basilica or at the east end of a Christian church.
arch A curved structural member that spans an opening and is generally composed of wedge-shaped blocks (voussoirs) that transmit the downward pressure laterally.
atrium (pl. atria) he court of a Roman house that is partly open to the sky. Also the open, colonnaded court in front of and attached to a Christian basilica.
basilica In Roman architecture, a civic building for legal and other civic proceedings, rectangular in plan. In Christian architecture, a church plan based on the Roman basilica with a longitudinal axis and an entrance at one end and an apse at the other.
baldacchino A canopy, often freestanding, on columns, frequently built over an altar. Also called a ciborium.
baptistery n Christian architecture, the building used for baptism, usually situated next to a church.
catacombs ubterranean networks of galleries and chambers designed as cemeteries for the burial of the dead.
Cathedra Literally, the seat of the bishop, from which the word cathedral is derived. So a cathedral is a Bishop’s church.
central plan A round domed building plan in which the parts of the structure are arranged, with equal or almost equal, distances from the center.
Christus Triumphans Latin for “triumphant Christ” An image of the living Christ on the cross.
Christus Patiens Latin for “suffering Christ.” An image of Christ depicted dead on the cross.
cloister A monastery courtyard usually with covered walkways or ambulatories along the sides.
codex (pl. codices) Separate pages of vellum or parchment bound together at one side and having a cover; the predecessor of the modern book.
crossing The space in a cruciform church formed by the intersection of the nave and the transept.
cruciform Literally means “cross-shaped.”
cubiculum (pl. cubicula) A small room that opens onto the atrium of a Roman house. Also, a small chamber in an Early Christian catacomb that served as a mortuary chapel.
diptych A two-paneled painting or altarpiece; also, an ancient Roman, Early Christian, or Byzantine hinged writing tablet, often of ivory and carved on the external sides.
folio A page of a manuscript or book.
Gospels The four books of the New Testament that relate the life and teachings of Jesus. The Gospels were written by the Evangelists Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.
Holy Spirit In Christianity, the third “person” of the Trinity (with the Father and the Son), often symbolized by a dove.
illumination From the Latin ‘illuminare’ meaning to adorn. Decoration with drawings (usually in gold, silver, and bright colors), especially of manuscript pages.
loculi small rectangular shelf like openings in the walls of catacombs to receive the dead.
lunette A semi-circular area (with the flat side down) in a wall over a door, a niche, or a window.
Magi The wise men from the East who present gifts to the infant Jesus.
martyrium A small building intended to mark the site of a burial of a Christian martyr.
mausoleum A monumental tomb. A large stately tomb or building, often above ground, housing a single tomb or several tombs.
monotheism: The worship of a single all-powerful God. (the opposite of polytheism: the belief in multiple gods).
narthex The vestibule of a church ; a transverse hall in front of the nave.
nave From the Latin meaning ‘ship.’ The center or main aisle of a church extending from the entrance to the crossing or choir.
New Testament The second part of the Christian Bible dealing with the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
nimbus A halo (aureole) appearing around the head of a holy figure to signify divinity.
Old Testament The first part of the Christian Bible, corresponding to the Hebrew Bible, that recounts the creation of the world and the history of ancient Israel.
orant In Early Christian art, a figure represented with hands raised in prayer.
personification- An abstract idea or quality represented in bodily form.
pieta- A painted or sculpted representation of the Virgin Mary mourning over the body of Christ.
portico A porch with a roof supported by columns; an entrance porch.
prefiguration In Early Christian art, the depiction of Old Testament persons and events as prophetic forerunners of Christ and New Testament events.
putto (pl: putti): Italian term for a nude, often winged, cherubic young boy.
relics An object of religious veneration, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of a saint or holy person.
reliquary a container for keeping, holding, or displaying a relic.
saint from the Latin ‘sanctus’ meaning ‘made holy by God.’
sarcophagus From the Latin meaning “ consumer of flesh.” A coffin, or container for the body, usually made of stone.
Torah From the Hebrew for teaching or learning. A Jewish sacred scroll containing the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures; often called “The Law.”
Byzantine A term used to identify whatever pertains to Byzantium; territory, history, art, culture.
Byzantium An ancient Greek city on which Constantine founded his new capital, Constantinople. A term also used for the Eastern Christian Roman Empire.
Constantinople Modern day Istanbul, Turkey. Constantine’s new seat of the empire founded in 324. The ancient site of Byzantium, called the “New Rome.”
Corpus juris civilis Literally “Code of Civil Law.” The codification of Roman law under Emperor Justinian.
Hagia Sophia Literally “Holy Wisdom.” The supreme example of Byzantine architecture built under Justinian between 532-537.
iconoclasm n general, the destruction of images used in religious worship. A period in Byzantine history during the 8th century that was in opposition to icons. The iconoclasts were the “breakers of images” and the iconophiles were those who loved icons.
Justinian Byzantine Emperor who ruled from 527-565. His wife was the Empress Theodora.
mandorla Literally means “almond.” An almond-shaped aureole of light, often encompassing Christ or other holy figures.
paten large bowl used for holding the Eucharist bread
pendentives A triangular section of masonry making the structural transition from a square to a circle. Four pendentives support a dome
The Transfiguration An event before the passion of Christ, on Mt. Tabor, in which Jesus is revealed as God’s son.
The Ascension On the 40th day, after the Resurrection, on the Mount of Olives, with his Mother and Apostles as witnesses, Christ gloriously ascends to heaven in a cloud.
Icon From the Greek for ‘image.’ An icon is a small portable painting depicting Christ, the Virgin Mary, and or Saints. It is an aid to devotion.
abbey A monastic community ruled by an abbott (chief monk) or an abbess (chief nun).
author portrait A type of page or illumination common in Gospels books that depicts a portrait of the Evangelist (often shown seated and writing / with or without symbol); the page most often precedes their respective Gospel.
Beowulf The legendary hero of an anonymous 8th cen. Old English epic poem.
Bible From the Greek word “biblia” meaning "books." The scriptures sacred to Christians, consisting of the books of the Hebrew bible (Old Testament) and the New Testament.
carpet pages In early medieval manuscripts, decorative pages with full page illuminations that are decorative and often resemble textiles.
cloisonné French for partition. A process of enameling that involves the creation of cells or compartments formed by strips of metal fused to the surface. Those compartments are then filled with molten powdered glass or gems (enamel).
chi-rho-iota The first three letters of Christ’s name in Greek. (in Latin XPI) The symbol, often called a chi-rho, is a monogram of Christ.
Charlemagne French for Charles the Great; Frankish King crowned Holy Roman Emperor in St. Peters in Rome on Christmas Day 800.
confraternities In late medieval Europe, organizations founded by laypeople who dedicated themselves to strict religious observances.
colophon - An inscription usually on the last page of a book giving information about a books history.
Evangelist- From the Greek for “one who announces good news.” Traditionally, one of the 4 authors of the first books of the New Testament; Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.
Hiberno-Saxon An art style that flourished in the monasteries of the British Isles in the early Middle Ages; also called Insular. Hibernia was the ancient name of Ireland.
Insular A term often used to describe the art and culture of the Irish-English islands.
parchment Lambskin prepared as a surface for painting or writing, one of the materials which comprised the leaves of a codex
regalia symbols of royalty such as the crown and sceptre.
Renovatio Imperii Romani part of Charlemagne’s official seal; it literally means renewal of the Roman empire.
scriptorium Literally a writing house. The writing studio or workshop often associated with a monastery.
tonsure A hairstyle worn by priests and monks in some religious orders that required the shaving of the head in some way. The Roman Catholic tonsure is cut in imitation of the crown of thorns.
St. Benedict A monk, Benedict of Nursia, who founded the Benedictine order in 529. His written “rule” became the standard for Western monastic institutions.
vellum Calfskin prepared as a surface for writing or painting.
zoomorphic animal-like" the term refers to art-work or decorated objects with an animal motif or animal-like appearance.
apotheosis Elevated to the rank of gods or the ascent to heaven.
barrel vault also called a tunnel vault; an extension of a simple arch.
damnatio memoriae The Roman decree condemning those who ran afoul of the Senate. Those who suffered damnatio memoriae had their memorials demolished and their names erased from public inscriptions.
decumanus The E-W street in a Roman town, intersecting the cardo(N-S) at right angles.
verism From the Latin verus meaning truth; truth particularly in Roman portraiture.
Winged Man Matthew
Winged Lion Mark
Winged Ox Luke
Eagle John
Created by: 1504356178