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anatomy chater 10-18

chapters 10-18

formed elements constitute about _____ % of the blood volume 45
functions of blood transports materials, helps regulate pH of body fluids, helps fight infection
the 2 leukocytes that are most important in phagocytizing diease organisms and cellular debris monocytes and neutrophils
a blood clot that moves from where it formed to plug another vessel embolism
Rh+ blood normally has Rh antigens and NO anti-Rh antibodies
a person with AB blood has plasma that contains neither anti-a nor anti-b antibodies
inherited disorder that prevents normal blood clotting hemophilia
most abundant leukocytes neutrophils
blood clot is formed of blood cells entangled protein threads fibrin
leukocytes that enter body tissues to become macrophages monocytes
anemia caused by the inability to absorb vitamin B-12 in sufficient quantities pernicious anemia
ABO and Rh blood types are determined by the presence or absence antigens on erthrocytes
ions of inorganic compounds in the plasma are commonaly called eletrolytes
person w/ type O blood contains no antigens and anti-a and anti-b antibodies
erythoblastosis fetalis may occur in Rh- mother with an Rh+ baby
disorder in which a clot has formed in an unbroken vein is called thrombophlebitis
leukocyte with incospicuous lavender-staining cytoplasmic granules and multiple-lobed nucleus neutrophil
leukocytes that move into body tissue to become mast cells that release histamine and heparin in allergic reaction or when tissues are damaged basophils
erythrocytes are produced in the red bone marrow
formed elementsthat transport oxgen and carbon dioxide are erythrocytes
large leukocyte without cytoplasmic grandules and with kidney-shaped nucleus is monocyte
leukocyte with red cytoplasmic granules and biobed neucleus is eosinophil
hemoglobin combines with oxygen, gives the red color to blood, consists of a protein an iron-containing pigment
plasma components that are antibodies globulins
disorder characterized by inablility of the blood to carry sufficient oxygen as anemia
erythropoetin concentration is regulated by kidney cells that are sensitive to changes in the blood concentration of oxygen
most abundant formed element erythrocytes
leukocyte with blue cytplasmic granules and a U-shaped nucleus is basophil
worn-out and damaged erythrocytes are removed by the liver and spleen
leukocytes help fight disease organisms, may move from capillaries into body tissues, carry carbon dioxide from tissue cells
leukocytes that play a vital role in immunity lyphocytes
albumin, globulins and fibrinogein plasma proteins
heart chamber revieving deoxygenated blood from veins (from heart) left atrium
antrioventricular valve prevents the flow of blood from ventricle to an atrium
blood flow through heart (chambers & valves) right atrium- tricuspic AV valve-right ventricle-pulmonary similunar valve-pulmonary trunk
blood returning to right atrium deoxgenated
impulse transmission in the heart SA node-AV node-AV bundle-Purkinje fibers
left ventricle pumps blood directly into aorta
chordea tendieae ancor the cusps off atrioventriculuar valves
external jugular vein face, scalp, neck
brachial vein upper arm
axillary vein armpit
renal vein kidney
gonadal vein ovaries or testes
ulnar vein hand and forearm
andterior and posterior tibial vein foot and lower leg
hepatic artery liver
coronary artery heart
subclavian artery shoulder and arm
femoral artery thigh
carotid artery head and neck
popliteal artery knee
common iliac artery pelvic region and leg
right atrium recieves blood directly from venea cavea
fuction of precapillary sphincter is allow flow of blood when tissues are in need of oxygen
ballooning of a portion of an artery b/c of a weak spot in its wall is called aneurysm
death of part of heart muscle due to obstruction of coronary artery myocardial infarction
flow of blood thru vessels heart-artery-ateriole-capillaries-venule-veins-heart
veins carrying oxygenated bllood to the heart pulmonary veins
type of muscle forming the heart cardiac muscle tissue
thickest layer of heart wall myocardium
pulmonary circuit carries blood to lungs only
inflammation normal respose, promotes healing
thoracic duct empties lymph into left subclavian vein
clone of B-lyphocytes consist of both plasma and memory B-cells
lyphocytes in lymphatic tissues are differentiated B cells and T cells
activated B-cell undergoes rapid cell division to produce a clone of B-cells that can bind only 1 type of antigen
localized infection may result in the formation of pus which is composed of dead white blood cells, tissue cells and pathogens
flow of lymph valves in lymphatic vessesl prevent a backflow, skeletal muscle contrations & respiratory movements help the flow of lymph
fever (not too high) speeds up body's defense processes
lymphatic tissue that intercept pathogens near the entrance to the pharynx tonsils
lysozyme helps to provide protecion against pathogenic bacteria
removal of excess interstitial fluid by the lymphatic system maintains normal blood volume and prevents edema
thymus gland in mediastinum above the heart
the secondary immune response is faster and more intense than first
most lymphatic vessels drain into thoracic duct
immunity derived from an injection fo antibodies artificially acquired passive immunity
blood is filtered and cleansed by spleen
reserve supply of blood is stored in spleen
HIV impairs immunity by destroying helper T-cells
barrier against disease organisms skin, mucous membranes, flow of tears
nonself molecules is made by both B- and T-lymphocytes
filtration of lymph and production of lymphocytes are fuctions of the lymph nodes
nodes at end of nasal cavity pharyngeal tonsil
node at back of troat palatine tonsil
node at back of tongue lingual tonsil
localized infection usually is brought under control by the phagocytic action fo neutrophils and macrophages
antibodies are produced by activated plasma cells
for a lymphocyte to recongnize an antigen, it is engulfed and presented on the surface of a macrophage
lymphatic organs spleen, thymus, tonsils
ineffective removal of excess intersitial fluid by the lymphatic system edema
B-lymphocytes provide antibody-mediated immunity
interferon helps provide protection against pathogenic viruses
type of lymphocyte that must bind w/ a presented antigen to start an immune response helper T-cell
right lymphatic duct empties lymph into right subclavian vein
once pathogen destroyed, immune reaction is curtailed by suppressor T-cells
immunity derived from recieviving a vaccine artificially acquired active immunity
lymphatic capillaries closed-ended tubes
circulating lyphocytes in the blood are T-lymphocytes
interstitial fluid enters a lymph capillary by pressure of accumulated interstitial fluid that forces some fluid b/w capillary cells
monocytes that enter the tissues become transformed into macrophages
once pathogens enter body tissues, the primary cells involved in phagocytosis are neutrophils and macrophages
T-lymphocytes differentiated and mature in the thymus
type of immuninty that is most effective againste cancer cells, foreign cells & parasites other than baceria & viruses cell-mediated immunity
gas exchange in the lungs and body tissues diffusion
surface of nasal cavity is increased by conchae
carbon dioxide is primarily transported in bicarbonate ions
passageway for digestive and respiratory system pharynx
movement of air into and out of lungs pulmonary ventilation
deoxygenated blood carries 75% of a maximum oxygen load
ciliated mucous epithelium lines nasal cavity, phrynx, larynx,trachea, and bronchi
primary breathing muscles diaphragm and external intercostals
upper respiratory tract includes nasal cavity, pharynx and larynx
trachea branches to form 2 air passages primary bronchi
trachea and bronchi held open by cartilaginous rings
exchange of O2 and CO2 b/w the blood and tissue cells internal respiration
serous membrane that covers the surface of a lung visceral pleura
gas exchange in the lungs b/w blood in capillaries and air in alveoli
breathing is controlled by the respitatory cener located in the medulla oblongata and pons
carbon dioxide molecules combine w/ H20 to form carbonic acid within the erythocytes
organ with vocal cords layrnx
oxygen is pirmarily transported as oxyhemoglobin in RBC's
exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide b/w air in the lungs and blood in the lungs external respiration
air filled cavities in bones surrounding the nasal cavity paranasal sinuses
Created by: liisa