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Vocab Ch. 14

The Reproductive System

genitalia means reproductive organs
scrotum encloses, protects, and supports the testicles.
perineum is the region between the scrotum and the anus.
testicles also known as TESTES, are the two small egg-shaped glands that produce the spermatozoa.
epididymis is a tube at the upper part of each testicle.
penis is the male sex organ that transports the sperm into the female vagina.
glans penis is a soft sensitive region located at the tip of the penis.
prepuce also known as FORESKIN, covers and protects the glan penis.
vas deferens leads from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct in the prostate.
seminal vesicles are glands located at the base of the urinary bladder. these glands secrete a thick, yellow substance that nourishes the sperm cells and forms much of the volume of ejaculated semen.
ejaculatory duct is one of the two final portions of the seminal vesicles.
prostate gland secretes a thick fluid that, as part of the semen, aids the motility of the sperm.
cowper's gland also known as BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS, these glands secrete thick mucus that acts as a lubricant that tends to flow early during sexual excitement.
urethral passes through the penis to the outside of the body. in the male, it serves both the reproductive and urinary systems.
gamete is a reproductive cell.
sperm also known as SPERMAOTOZOA, are the male gametes, formed in the seminiferous tubules of the testicles.
urologist specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of the females and the genitourinary system of the males.
balanitis is an inflammation of the glans penis and is often associated with phimosis.
phimosis is a narrowing of the opening of the foreskin so it cannot be retracted(pulled back) to expose the glans penis.
impotence also known as ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION, is the inability of the male to achieve or maintain a penile erection.
anorchism is the congenital absence of one or both testicles.
cryptorchidism also known as UNDESCENDED TESTIS, is a developmental defect in which one testicle fails to descend into the scrotum.
epididymitis is inflammation of the epididymis.
hydorcele is a hernia filled with fluid in the testicles or the tubes leading from the testicles.
testitis also known as ORCHITIS, is inflammation of one or both testicles.
varicocele is a varicose vein(abnormal enlargement of the vein) of the testicles that may cause mal infertility.
azoospermia is the absence of sperm in the semen.
oligospermia also known as LOW SPERM COUNT, is an abnormally low number of sperm in the ejaculate.
benign prostate hypertrophy(BPH) also known as PROSTATOMEGALY/ENLARGED PROSTATE, is an abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland.
prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men.
prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostage gland
prostatorrhea is an abnormal flow of prostatic fluid discharged through the urethra.
prostate-specific antigen(PSA) is a blood test to screen for prostate cancer.
sperm analysis(SA) also known as SPERM COUNT, is the testing of freshly ejaculated semen to determine the volume plus the sperm count, shape, size, and motility(ability to move).
testicular self-examination(TSE) is an important self-help step in early detection of testicular cancer.
circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis and is usually performed a few days after birth.
orchidectomy is the surgical removal of one or both testicles.
varicocelectomy is the removal of a portion of an enlarged vein to relieve a varicocele.
sterilization is any procedure rendering an individual(male or female) incapable of reproduction.
castration also known as BILATERAL ORCHIDECTOMY, is the surgical removal or destruction of both testicles.
vasectomy is the male sterlization procedure in which a portion of the vas deferens is surgically removed.
vasovasostomy is a procedure to restore fertility to a vasectomized male.
ablation means the removal or destruction of the function of a body part.
prostatectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland.
radical prostatectomy is the surgical removal of the entire prostate gland, the seminal vesicles, and some surrounding tissue.
transurethral prostatectomy(TURP) also known as TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF THE PROSTATE, is the removal of all or part of the prostate through the urethra.
radiation therapy/hormone therapy are additional treatments used to control prostate cancer.
sexual transmitted diseases(STDs) also known as VENEREAL DISEASES(VDs), are transmitted through sexual intercourse or other genital contact.
bacterial vaginosis is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection of the vagina.
chlamydia which is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, is highly contagious.
genital herpes(HSV-2) is caused by the herpes simplex virus and is highly contagious. symptoms include itching or burning before the appearance of lesions(sores).
gonorrhea which is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is highly contagious. it is characterized by painful urination and an abnormal discharge and may affect other body structures, including the eyes.
human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) is transmitted through exposure to infected body fluids, particularly through sexual intercourse with and infected partner.
human papilloma virus also known as GENITAL WARTS, is caused b the human papillomavirus. it is highly contagious and increases the risk of genital and cervical cancer.
syphilis is highly contagious and is caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum.
trichomonas also known as TRICH, is a vaginal inflammation caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.
mons pubis is a rounded fleshy prominence over the pubic symphysis.
vulva/pudendum the female external genitalia.
labia mojoria/labia minora the vagina lips that protect the external genitalia and the urethral meatus.
clitoris is an organ of sensitive, erectile tissue located anterior to the vaginal opening and the urethral meatus.
bartholins glands two small, rounded glands on either side of the vaginal opening that produce a mucus secretion to lubricate the vagina.
perineum is teh region between the vaginal orifice(opening) and the anus.
mammary glands also known as BREASTS, are milk-producing glands that develop during puberty.
areola is the dark-pigmented area that surrounds the nipple.
lactiferous also known as MAMMARY GLANDS of the breast, produce mil after childbirth.
lactiferous duct carries milk from the mammary glands to the nipple.
ovaries are a pair of small almond-shaped organs located in the lower abdomen, one on either side of the uterus.
follicle is a fluid-filled sac containing a single ovum(egg).
ova also known as EGG, are the female gametes.
fallopian tubes also known as UTERINE TUBES, carry the ovum downward from the ovary to the uterus.
linfundibulum is the funnel-shaped opening into each fallopian tube.
fimbriae which are the fringed fingerlike extensions of the this opening.
uterus is a pear-shaped organ with muscular walls and a mucous membrane lining filled with a rich supply of blood vessels.
fundus is the bulging rounded part above the entrance of the fallopian tubes.
corpus also known as the BODY, is the middle portion of the uterus.
cervis also known as CERVIX UTERI, is the lower narrow portion that extends into the vagina.
perimetrium is the tough membrane outer layer.
myometrium is the muscular middle layer.
endometrium is the inner layer, which consists of specialized epithelial mucosa.
vagina is a muscular tube lined with mucosa that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body.
hymen is a membranous fold of tissue that partly or completely covers the external vaginal orifice.
orifice is an entrance into, or an outlet from, a body cavity or canal.
menstruation also known as MENSES, is the normal periodic discharge of a bloody fluid from the nonpregnant uterus.
menarche is the beginning of the menstrual function, whic begins at puberty.
menopause is the normal stopping of the monthly menstrual period.
perimenopause is the term used to designate the transition phase between regular memstrual periods and not periods at all.
gynecologist specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system.
obstetricial specializes in providing medical care of to women during pregnancy, childbirth, and immediately thereafter.
neonatologist specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the newborn.
pediatrician specializes in diagnosing, treating, and preventing disorders and diseases of children.
anovulation is the failure to ovulate.
oophoritis is an inflammation of the ovary.
ovarian cancer is the third most common cancer of the female reproductive system; however, more women die of it than from other forms.
ovariorrhexis is the rupture of an ovary.
pelvic inflammotory disease(PID) is any inflammation of the female reproductive organs not associated with surgery or pregnancy.
polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) also known as STEIN-LEVENTHAL SYNDROME, is characterized by enlargement of the ovaries caused by the presence of many cysts.
pyosalpinx is an accumulation of pus in the fallopian tube.
salpingitis is an inflammation of the fallopian tube.
endometriosis is a condition in which endometrial tissue escapes the uterus and grows outside the utrus on other structures in the pelvic cavity.
fibroid also known as LEIOMYOMA, is a benign tumor composed of muscle and fibrous tissue that occurs in the wall of the uterus.
metrorrhea is an abnormal uterine discharge.
metrorrhexis means rupture of the uterus.
pyometritis is a purulent(pus-containing) inflammation of the uterus.
uterine cancer occurs commonly after menopause, and one of th earliest symptoms is abnormal bleeding from the uterus.
anteflexion is the normal position of the uterus. in this position, it is bent forward.
anteversion is abnormal tipping, tilting, or turning forward of the entire uterus, including the cervix.
prolapse is a falling or sinking down of the uterus until it protrudes through the vaginal opening. means downward placement.
retroflexion is abnormal tipping with the body of the uterus bent, forming an angle with the cervix.
retroversion is abnormal tipping of the entire uterus backward, with the cervix pointing toward the pubic symphysis.
cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women and usually affects women between the ages of 35 and 55.
cervical dysplasia also known as PRECANCEROUS LESIONS, is the abnormal growth of cells of the cervix that may be detected on a pap smear.
cervicitis is an inflammation of the cervix.
endocervicitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the cervix.
colporrhexis means laceration(tearing) of the vagina
leukorrhea is a profuse white mucus discharge form the uterus and vagina.
prurius vulva is a condition of severe itching of the external female genitalia.
vaginal candidiasis which is caused by the yeast Candida albicans, is the most commonly occurring vaginal yeast infection.
vaginitis also known as COLPITIS, is an inflammation of the lining of the vagina.
vulvodynia is a nonspecific syndrome of unknown cause characterized by chronic burning, pain during sexual intercourse, itching, or stinging irritation of the vulva.
vulvitis is an inflammation of the vulva.
fibrocystic breast disease is the presence of single or multiple cysts in the breasts.
galactocele also known as GALACTOMA, is a cystic enlargement of the mammary gland containing milk.
mastitis is an inflammation of the breast.
amenorrhea is an absence of menstrual periods.
dysmenorrhea is abdominal pain caused by uterine cramps during a menstrual period.
hypomenorrhea is a small amount of menstrual flow druing a shortened regular menstrual period.
menorrhagia is an excessive amount of menstrual flow over a longer duration than of a normal perios.
menometrorrhagia is excessive uterine bleeding occurring both during the menses and at irregular intervals.
mittelschmerz means pain between menstrual periods.
oligomenorrhea means a markedly reduced menstrual flow and also abnormally infrequent menstruation or relative amenorrhea.
polymenorrhea means abnormally frequent menstruation.
premenstrual syndrome(PMS) includes symptoms occurring within two-week period before menstruation such as bloating, edema, headaches, mood swings, and breast discomfort.
breast self-examination(BSE) is an important self-care procedure for the early detection of breast cancer.
colposcopy is the direct visual examination of the tissues of the cervix and vagina using a colposcope.
endovaginal ultrasound is a diagnostic test to determine the cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding.
hysterosalpingography is a radiographic examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of radiopaque material.
hysteroscopy is the direct visual examination of the interior of the uterus using the magnification of a hysteroscope.
mammography is a radiographic examination of the breast.
papanicolaou test also known as PAP SMEAR, is an exfoliative biopsy for the detection and diagnosis of conditions of the cervix and surrounding tissues.
birth control pills are a form of hormones administered to prevent pregnancy.
contraceptive is the measure taken or device used to lessen the likelihood of conception and pregnancy.
hormon replacement therapy(HRT) is used to replace the extrogen and progesterone that are no longer produced during perimenopause and after menopause.
oophorectomy also known as OVARIECTOMY, is the surgical removal of an ovary.
salpingectomy is the surgical removal of a fallopian tube.
tubal ligation is a surgical procedure performed for purpose of female sterilization.
cervicectomy is surgical removal of the cervix.
colpopexy is the surgical fixation of the vagina to a surrounding structure.
conization also known as CONE BIOPSY, is teh surgical removal of a cone-shaped section of tissue from the cervix.
colporrhaphy means suturing the vagina.
dilation and curettage(D&C) is the dilation of the cervix and curettage of the uterus.
dilation is the expansion of an opening.
curettage is the removal of material from the surface.
hysteropexy is the surgical fixation of a misplaced or abnormally movable uterus.
vaginoplasty is the surgical repair of the vagina.
hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus and may or may not include the cervix.
vaginal hysterectomy(VH) is performed through the vagina.
total abdominal hysterectomy is performed through an incision in the abdomen. includes the removal of the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the surgical removal of both fallopian tubes and both ovaries.
bilateral hysterosalpingo-oophorectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus and cervix, plus both fallopian tubes and ovaries.
radical hysterectomy includes the surgical removal of the uterus, tubes, ovaries, adjacent lymph nodes, and part of the vagina.
mammoplasty is the surgical repair of restructuring of the breast.
breast augmentation is mammoplasty to increase breast size.
mastopexy is surgery to affix sagging breasts in a more elevated position.
infertility is the inability of a couple to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse or the inability of a woman to carry a pregnancy to a live birth.
infertility specialist also known as FERTILITY SPECIALIST, who diagnoses and treats problems associated with conception and maintaining pregnancy.
ovualation is the release of a mature egg from the follicle on the surface of the ovary.
corpus luteum secretes the hormone prgesterone during the second half of the menstrual cycle.
coitus also known as COPULATION/SEXUAL INTERCOURSE, the male ejaculates approximately 100 million sperm cells into the female's vagina.
fertilization also known as CONCEPTION,when a sperm penetrates the descending ovum, this occurs and a new life begins.
zygote after fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube, the fertilized egg, is called this, travels to the uterus.
implantation is the embedding of the zygote into the endothelial lining of the uterus.
embryo from implantation through the eighth wee of pregnancy, the developing child is called this.
fetus is the developing child from the ninth week of pregnancy to the time of birth.
fraternal twins fertilization of separate ova by separate sperm cells. develop into two separate embryos.
identical twins are formed from the fertilization of a single egg cell by a single sperm.
chorion is the outer membrane that encloses the fetus.
placenta is a temporary organ that forms within the uterus to allow the exchange of the nutrients, oxygen, and wast products between the mother and fetus without allowing maternal blood and fetal blood mix.
afterbirth when the placenta is expelled.
amnion also known as AMNIOTIC, is the innermost of the membranes that surround the embryo in the uterus and form the amniotic cavity.
amnionic fluid also known as AMNIOTIC FLUID, is the liquid in which the fetus floats and is protected.
umbilical cord is the structure that connects the fetus to the placenta.
navel also known as the BELLY BUTTON, is formed where the umbilical cord was attached to the fetus.
gestation which lasts approximately 280 days, is the period of development of the child in the mothers uterus.
trimesters pregnancy is described interms of the number of weeks of gestation (40 total), or divided into three months.
due date is calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period(LMP).
quickening is the first movement of the fetus felt in the uterus.
viable when the fetus is capable of living outside the mother.
nulligravida is a woman who has never been pregnant.
nullipara is a woman who has never borne a viable child.
primigravida is a woman during her first pregnancy.
primipara is a woman who has borne one child.
multiparous means a woman who has given birth two or more times.
parturition also known as LABOR/CHILDBIRTH, is the act of giving birth to an offspring.
antepartum means before the onset of labor with reference to the mother.
labor and delivery occurs in three stages.
dilation enlargement of the cervix
effacement is the thinning of shortening of the cervix.
presentation is the term used to describe the portion of the fetus that can be touched by the examination finger during labor.
crowning the stage at which the head can be seen at the vaginal orifice.
delivery means the expulsion of the infant and afterbirth.
postpartum means after childbirth.
puerperium is the period of three to six weeks after childbirth until uterus returns to its normal size.
colstrum is the fluid secreted by the breasts during the first days postpartum.
lactation is the process of forming and secreting milk from the breasts as nourishment for the infant.
lochia is the vaginal discharge during the first week or two after childbirth. consists of blood, tissue, and mucus.
uterine invollution is the return of the uterus to its normal size and former condition.
neonate the newborn infant is known as this during the first four weeks after birth.
meconium is the greenish material that collects in the intestine of a fetus and forms the first stools of a newborn.
abortion(AB) is the interruption or termination of pregnancy before the fetus is viable.
spontaneous abortion(SAB) also known as MISCARRIAGE, occurs without outside action.
induced abortion also known as THERAPEUTIC ABORTION(TAB), is deliberately caused by human action form medical purposes.
ectopic pregnancy also known as EXTRAUTERINE PREGNANCY, is a pregnancy in which the fertilized egg is implanted and begins to develop outside the uterus.
ectopic means out of place.
tubal pregnancy is an ectopic pregnancy in which the embryo is implanted within the fallopian tube rather than the uterus.
preeclampsia also known as TOXEMIA OF PREGNANCY, is complication of pregnancy characterized by hypertension(high blood pressure), edema(swelling), and proteinuria.
proteinuria is an abnormally high level of protein in the urine.
eclampsia more serious form of preeclampsi, is characterized by convulsions and sometimes coma.
abruptio placentae is an abnormal condition in which the placenta seperates from the uterine wall prematurely befor the birth of the fetus.
breech presentation is when the buttocks or feet of the fetus are presented first.
placenta previa is the abnormal implantation of the placent in the lower portion of the uterus.
premature infant also known as PREEMIE, is any neonate born before the thirty-seventh week of gestation.
stillbirth is the birth of a fetus that died before or during delivery.
amniocentesis is a surgical procedure in which a needle is passed through the abdominal and uterine walls to obtain a specimen of amniotic fluid.
chorionic villus sampling(CVS) is the retrieval of chorionic cells from the placenta between the eighth to tenth weeks of pregnancy.
electronic fetal monitor is a device that allows observation of the fetal heart rate and the maternal utrine contractions during labor.
fetal ultrsound is a noninvasive procedure used to evaluate fetal development.
pelvimetry is the measurement of the dimensions of the pelvis to determine its capacity to allow passage of the fetus through the birth canal.
pregnancy test is performed on either a blood or urine specimen to determine human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG) levels.
apgar score is an evaluation of a newborn infants physical status by assigning numerical values.
cesarean delivery also known as CESAREAN SECTION, is the delivery of the child through an incision in the maternal abdominal and uterine wall.
episiotomy is a surgical incision of the perineum and vagina to facilitate dilevery and prevent laceration of the tissues.
episiorrhaphy is a sutured repair of an episiotomy.
Created by: caprinag1994