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the 6 essential nutrients protein carbs fat vitamins water minerals
essential nutrients are substances that the body must get from food because it cannot manufacture them all or fast enough to meet it's needs
3 classes of nutrients that supply energy protein fat carbs
ratios - grams to calories 1 gram protein = 4 calories 1 gram carbs = 4 cal 1 gr fat = 9 cal 1 gram alcohol 7.2
kilocalorie measure of energy content in food
6 essential nutrients are protein, carbs, fat, vitamin, mineral, and water
essential nutrients are Substances that the body must get form food because it is inable to manufacture them all or fast enough to meet it's needs
3 classes of nutrients that supply energy protein, carbs, fat
ratios grams to calories 1 gr protein=4 calories 1 gr carbs = 4 calories 1 gram fat= 9 calories 1 gram alcohol = 7.2 calories
kilocalorie measure of energy content in food ; amt of heat it takes to heat 1 liter of water 1C
protein Basis of body structure ; Building blocks; Made of amino acids that contain carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen ; out of 20 aminos 9 are essentials; Key part of main structural components : muscle, bone, blood, enzymes, cell membranes and hormones.
protein 1 gram = 1lb; when losing weight eat more to keep muscle
2 types of protein complete and incomplete
complete proteins foods that supply all of the essential aminos acids in adequate amts : ( meat, fish, poultry,eggs,milk,cheese,soy)
incomplete proteins foods that supply most but not all of essential amino acids : (plants, beans, grains, nuts )
Biological value of protein Ranking system of protein; By product of cow high 90's;Whey protein- highest % closest to human muscle. Eggs- 100%; Soy- inferior- fido estrogens ( plant source of hormone )Fish better than soy/meat;pork- bird most common
Protein Intake 1-3 grams per LB ( HIGH ) 50 grams per meal Acceptable Macronutirent Distribution Range= 10-35% of total daily calories as protein; Extra protein is stored as fat
Fats Essential in small amts Supply Energy Insulate body Support+ Cushion organs Absorbs fat soluable vitamins Add flavor / texture to foods
Fats Regulators of body processes : maintenance of BP- Progress of healthy pregnancy
Types of Fats Trans Fat ; Saturated Fat ; polyunsaturated ; monounsaturated
Trans fat unsaturated fat that has been hydrogenated ; Hydrogen added to unsat fat producing a mixture of saturated fatty acids + standard+ transforms of unsaturated fatty acids
Saturated fats clogging; solid at room temp; raises cholesteral and LDL; coconut oil the highest in saturated fat; raises chances for heart disease, colon and prostate cancer.
Polyunsaturated Fat 2 FORMS : Omega 3 fatty acids and Omega 6 fatty acids. A fat with two or more carbon carbon double bonds; usually liquid at room temperature. Found in nuts, certain vegetables, vegetable oils, and fatty fish
Omega 3 Fatty Acids Produced when end most double bond of poly fatty occurs 3 carbons from end of fatty acid chain. Found primarily in fish. SOURCES- deep cold water fish and flax seed
Omega 6 fatty acids produced when the end most double bond of poly fat occurs 6 carbons from end of fatty acid chain. SOURCES- vegetable oil ( corn ) soybean, cottonseed oil
Fats and Health Fat affect blood cholesterol levels. LDL- Low Density Lipoprotein - BAD Cholesterol. HDL- High Density Lipoprotein- GOOD cholesterol. Saturated + Trans fats RAISE LDL levels and LOWERS HDL. Unsaturated LOWERS LDL levels
HDL High Density Lipoprotein-60+ ; lowered by trans fats; raised w omega 3's
LDL Low Density Lipoprotein-130
Fats and Health affects triglyceride levels, inflammation, heart rhythm, BP + cancar risk. Choose poly-omega3 & monounsaturated. Limit TRANS+ SATURATED FATS
Carbohydrates primary function - supply energy to cells. Muscle get most energy form carbs during high intense exercise. Some cells use only carbs for energy.
Carbs During digestion, carbs break into single sugar molecules - glucose for absorbtion into liver / muscles take up glucose and store in form of glycogen
Carbs 2 types - Simple and Complex
Simple Carbs Quick to bloodstream. One or 2 sugar units in ea. molecule. Found naturally in fruit and milk : added to other foods. Sucrose, Frutose, Maltose, Lactose
Complex Carbs Slow to bloodstream. Chains of many sugar molecules. Found in plants, grains ( legumes ) tubers. Includes starches and most types of dietary fiber.
Whole Grains vs refined carbs Whole grains - higher in fiber, vitamins, minerals and other than refined carbs ; take longer to digest ( feel fuller sooner, slower rise in glucose level ).
Whole Grain All grains are whole before processing : removal bran / germ. Refined carbs usually retain all calories of whole grain but lose many nutrients
Whole Grain Consist of bran (outer layer) protects seed,B vitamins, fiber ; Endosperm (middle layer) energy, carbs + protein; Germ ( inner layer)nourishment - antioxidants, vitamin E + B vitamins
Glycemic Index Carb consumption cause insulin / glucose levels in blood to rise / fall. MEASURE OF HOW THE INGESTION OF A PARTICULAR FOOD AFFECTS BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS. High levels cause quick / dramatic changes in glucose levels.
Glycemic Index High GI foods linked to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease.
Fiber Dietary and Functional
Dietary Fiber non digestible carbs + linin found naturally in plants.
Functional Fiber non digestible carbs isolated from natural sources or synthesized in a lab ans added to a food or supplement
Fiber total fiber = dietary fiber + functional fiber: will clean you out! Recommended intake is 25-35 grams / day. Americans consume about half.
Fiber Sources All plant food unless processed. Fruit, veggies, legumes, oats,whole grains (wheat bran), Physillium - in some cereal + laxative.
Energy Balance Calories consumed = calories used; NO CHANGE
Physical Activity and Exercise Physical Activitity - Increase daily activity at least 30 minutes per day; to lose weight or maintain lose, 60 or more minutes per day in recommended
Diet and Eating Habits TOTAL CALORIES - choose an appropriate energy intake for you; PORTION SIZE - limit portions to those recommended by the Food Guide Pyramid to help keep energy intake moderate; measure portions at home and read food labels.
Diet and Eating Habits ENERGY (calorie) DENSITY - Choose foods with a low energy density, those that are relatively heavy but have few calories.
Diet and Eating Habits FAT CALORIES - keep fat intake moderate and limit intake of saturated fat and trans fat. CARBOHYDRATE - emphasize whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and other high fiber food.
Diet and Eating Habits Limit foods high in refined carbs, added sugars, and easily digestible starch.
Diet and Eating Habits PROTEIN - meet recommended intake of 10 - 35% of total calories. EATING HABITS - eat meals and snacks on a regular schedule.
Low Fat and Low Carb Diets Any diet that cuts calories cause weight loss. Low carb diets have not been proven safe over long term. Low Fat diets should focus on nutrient dense foods, esp. whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Diets with many restrictions have a high drop out rate.
Low Fat and Low Carb Diets People who have been successful at long term weight loss track food intake and engage in 60 or more minutes of physical activity per day.
BODY IMAGE The mental representation a person holds about his or her body. It consist of perceptions, images , thoughts, attitudes and emotions. Media images are linked to negative body images. Different cultures have different ideas about ideal body type.
Eating Disorders A serious disturbance in eating pattern or behavior characterized by a negative body image and concernabout baody weight or fat. Major Typess; ANOREXIA NERVOSA , BULIMIA NERVOSA, BINGE _ binge eating disorder
Bulimia Nervosa Recurrent episodes of binge eating and purging. Overeating and then using vomiting and excessive exercise to prevent weight gain. Begins in adolescence or young adulthood; A person may consume 1,000 - 60,000 calories. Extremely stressful on the body.
Anorexia nervosa A refusal to maintain body weight at a minimally healthy level; Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat. Common in 1 - 3 million Americans 95% female. Distorted image.
Binge eating Lack of control over eating behavior in general. Eating Patterns: Eating rapidly, until overly full, when not hungry, eating alone. Feelings of shame / guilt and depression.
Treatment of Eating Disorder Must address both problematic eating behaviors and misuse of food to manage stress and emotions. Changing behavior patterns and thoughts. Possibly involving medication and/or hospitalization.
Acceptance and Change Most are unhappy withsome aspect of appearance. Recognize the limits of change. Small amounts of weihgt loss can significantly reduce health risks.
Diet Books Reject books that: promote unbalanced ways of eating. Claim to be a big secret. Use Gimmicks. Promise quick loss. Limits foos selection. Select books that advocate a balanced diet plus exercise.
Weight Loss Programs Non- Commercial. Commercial - Partnership for Healthy Weight Management. Online and Clinical.
Doing it Yourself No more than 0.5 - 2 LBS per week. Combine any cuts in calorie intake with physical activity. Choose lifestlye strategies that you can maintain long term.
Creating an Individual Weight Management Plan Assess motivation and commitment. Set reasonable goals. Assess your current energy balance. To lose 1 LB, create a negative energy balance of 3500 calories. To lose 1/2 LB p/wk, negative daily enrgy balance of 250 calories; 2 LBS 1000 calories.
Creating an Individual Weight Management Plan Increase level of activity, exercise is crucial for lonng term success. Make diet changes and eating habits. Put plan into action. Write, get help from others, think positively.
Energy Balance Energy Balance is affected by food intake and energy output.
Refined Carbs Refined carbs usually retain all calories of whole grain but lose many nutrients
Monounsaturated Fats a fat with 1 carbon carbon double bond; usually liquid at room temperature; certain vegetables, nuts and vegetable oil.
Vitamins - Organic Micronutrients Organic ( carbon containing ) substances needed in small amounts to HELP PROMOTE and REGULATE chemical reactionsand processes in body cells. Donot provide energy, 0 calories, part of process.
Vitamins Four Vitamins are FAT SOLUABLE : A D E K
Vitamins 9 are WATER soluable : C and the 8 B COMPLEX : thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, folate, B 12, biotin, pantothenic acid
MINERALS - INORGANIC MICRONUTRIENTS Inorganic ( non carbon containing ) compounds needed in small amounts for regulation, growth, and maintenance of body tissues and functions
MINERALS 17 essential minerals: MAJOR - those that the body needs in amounts exceeding 100mg per day.
MINERALS Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride
MINERALS Essential trace - Copper , Fluoride, Iodide, Iron, Selenium, Zinc
Water - Vital Component Human body is composed of 60% water. Foods and fluid provide 80-90% daily intake.
Water Adequate intake to maintain hydration: Women 9 cups, Men 13 cups. DRINK IN RESPONSE TO THIRST; Consume additional for heavy exercise.
FOOD PYRAMID Bread group (6-11 serv ), vegetable ( 3-5 ) fruit (2-4), dairy (2-3) / meat poultry fish nuts( 2-3), fats- oils ( sparingly )
Serving Sizes vegetables - 1/2 cup to 1 cup. Bread - 1 slice, 1/2 cup cooked rice, pasta Etc., dairy- 1 cup milk, 2oz cheese. Fruit- 1 medium piece. Meat group - 2-3 oz of cooked meat OR 1/2 tofu, 2 tablespoons peanut butter
Nutrient Density Having many nutrients ie. orange and mikl over cola and tea
Vegetarian Alternative Vegan - No animal products
Vegetarian Alternative Lacto-ovo - include milk; cheese and eggs.
Vegetarian Alternative Lacto-vegan - milk and cheese
Vegetarian Alternative Partial -Semi - Pesco = eggs, dairy and small amounts of poultry and seafood
Food Safety Cook foods to an appropriate temperate. Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold
Created by: gstewart