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Geography Glossary 5

Geography Key Words and Definitions Population Topic

Distribution How people are spread out
Population density The number of people per square kilometre
Densely populated Many people per square kilometre (Tokyo has 5751/km2 -17 times the national average)
Sparsely populated Few people per km2 (Mongolia has 1.7/km2)
Positive factors Factors which lead to a dense population such as flat land or raw materials
Negative factors Factors which lead to a sparse population such as steep slopes and extreme climates
Population structure How the population is composed of the different age-groups and gender
Elderly dependents People over 65 (pensioners)
Child dependents People under the age of 16 who are at school & therefore dependent (14 in many LEDCs)
Infant mortality Death of children under the age of 1 per 1000 live births
Life expectancy The average length of life, measured by the health standards in the year of birth
Economically active People of working age (16-65 in UK). These provide the taxes to support the dependents
Death rate The number of people dying per 1000 of the population
Birth rate The number of babies born per 1000 of the population
Fertility rate The average number of babies born to a woman
Population pyramid A graph which measures age-groups and gender
Dependency ratio The number of dependents for every economically active person
Family planning A government scheme to help families consider the number of children they will have, to use birth control
Greying population An increase in the percentage of elderly dependents, due to increasing life expectancy
Natural Increase The difference between the birth rate and the death rate (BR-DR)
Contraception Methods to prevent births such as condoms and the Pill
Overpopulation When the number of people exceeds the available resources so poor living conditions
Demographic Transition Model This graph shows how birth and death rates change as a country develops
Replacement rate 2.1 – the fertility rate needed for enough children to be born to balance out those dying
Baby Boom When a larger number of children are born – often following a war
Optimum Population Total OPT = the number of people that an area can support so that they have a sustainable standard of living
One-Child Policy The scheme in China to reduce the total population
Urbanisation A growing percentage of the population living in towns and cities (different to urban growth)
Rural to Urban Movement from the countryside TO the cities
Migration The permanent movement from one place to another, internal or external from a country
Origin The source of the people moving (migrants)
Destination Where migrants wish to live
Asylum seekers People seeking safety in another country, fearing death or discrimination if they return home
Refugees People escaping into another country, from war or natural disasters
Internal Displaced People IDPs – migrants still within a country but unable to return home e.g. war in Congo
Immigration People moving IN to a country
Emigration People moving OUT of a country
Push factors The reasons at the origin which cause people to leave
Pull factors The reasons which attract migrants to their destination
Economic migrant A person whose reasons for moving are based on money and improving their standard of living. (e.g. Polish workers in UK)
Shanty towns Low cost, self-built housing in many LEDC cities which cannot cope with the number of migrants from the countryside (e.g. Dharavi in Mumbai)
Self-Help schemes A scheme where materials are provided by city council but migrants complete improvements to shanty towns themselves (e.g. Rio de Janeiro)
Created by: sallyfizz