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Chapter 14 Review

Principles of Disease and Epidemiology

Pathology Study of disease
Etiology Study of the cause of a disease.
Pathogenesis Development of disease
Infection The invasion and growth of pathogens in the body.
Disease An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally.
What is a host? An organism that shelters and supports the growth of pathogens.
What is a pathogen? A disease causing microorganism.
What is transient microbiota? Microbes that are present for various periods then disappear(can be present for days, weeks, or months).
What is normal microbiota? Microorgansims that establish permanent colonies inside or on the body without producing disease.
Opportunistic Pathogens Do not cause disease under normal conditions but can cause disease under special circumstances.
What is symbiosis? A relationship between 2 or more organisms (like you and your normal microbiota). It can be a positive, negative, or neutral relationship.
What are the 3 types of symbiosis? Commensalism (one organism benefits,& the other is unaffected), Mutualsim (both organisms benefit), Parasitism (one organism benefits and the other is harmed).
What are the locations of normal microbiota on and in the human body? Nose & throat (upper respiratory system), Eyes (conjunctivitis), Skin, Large intestines, Urinary and Genital systems (lower urethra in both sexes & vagina in females).
What is microbial antagonism? A competition between microbes.
What are probiotics? Live microbes applied to or ingested into the body (ex. yogurt), intended to exert a beneficial effect (ex. microbial antagonism, vitamin absorption, etc.)
What is a niche? The role an organism or population plays within its community or ecosystem. It encompasses all relationships that the organism (or population) has with its environment and with other organisms and populations in its environment.
What are Koch's Postulates? Criteria for establishing that specific microbes cause a specific disease.
Symptom A change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of a disease.
Sign A change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of a disease.
Syndrome A specific group of signs & symptoms that accompany a disease.
Communicable disease A disease that can be transmitted/spread directly or indirectly from one host to another.
Contagious disease A disease that is easily spread from one host to another.
Non-communicable disease Are normally caused by microorgansisms that normally grow outside of the human body and are not easi.y transmitted from one host to another.
What is incidence? The number of people in a population contracting a disease during a specific time.
What is prevalence? A fraction of a a population having a specific disease at a given time.
Sporadic disease A disease that occurs occasionally in a population.
Endemic disease A disease that is constantly present in a population.
Epidemic disease A disease acquired by many host in a given area in a short time.
What is an Acute disease? A disease that develops rapidly but last only a short time; a good example is influenza.
What is a chronic disease? A disease that develops more slowly, and the body's reactions may be less severe, but the disease is likely to continue or re-occur for long periods. Good examples are infectious mononucleosis, TB, and hepatitis B.
What is a latent disease? A disease in which a causative agent remains inactive of a time but then becomes active again to produce symptoms of the disease; an example is Shingles.
What are the predisposing factors that make the body more susceptible to disease? A short urethra in females (proximity yo anus), inherited traits, climate and weather, fatigue/stress, age ( very young, & very old), lifestyle (habits, partners, drug use), chemotherapy.
Toxemia The presence of toxins in the blood.
Viremia The presence of viruses in the blood.
What is a primary infection? An acute illness that causes the initial illness.
What is secondary infection? Caused by an opportunistic pathogen after the primary infection has weakened the body's defenses.
What is subclinical disease? Does not cause any noticeable illness, and no noticeable signs or symptoms ( inapparent infection).
Nosocomial infections An infection that develops during the course of a hospital stay and was not present at the time the patient was admitted.
What are reservoirs of infection? Continual sources of infection which may be human, animal, or non-living.
What is vehicle transmission? Transmission of disease agents by an inanimate reservoir (food, water, or air), or an object (fomite).
What are vectors? Arthropods, especially fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes.
Mechanical transmission? Arthropod vector carries the pathogen on it's feet or other body parts.
Biological transmission? An active process and is more complex. The arthropod bites an infected person or animal and injects some of the infected blood. Pathogens then reproduce in the vector, and the increase in the number of pathogens .
What is direct contact? It requires a close association between infected and susceptible host. Most common forms of contact are touching, kissing, and sexual intercourse.
What is droplet transmission? Transmits via airborne droplets. These droplets are discharged in the air bu coughing, sneezing, laughing, or talking and travels less than 1 meter to the reservoir host. Ex. Influenza, Pneumonia, Pertussis (whooping cough), and TB.
What are some reasons for emerging infectious diseases (EID's)? Evolution of new strains, inappropriate uses of antibiotics and pesticides, and changes in weather patterns. Can be caused by a virus, a bacterium, a fungus, a protozoan, or a helminthology.
Descriptive epidemiology? Collecting all data that describe the occurrence of the disease under study. The collection and analysis of data regarding occurrence of disease.
Analytical epidemiology? Comparison of a disease group and a healthy group. Analyzes a particular disease to determine its probable cause. This study can be done in 2 ways the case control method and the cohort method..
What is case control method? The epidemiologist looks for factors such as genetic or environmental disruptions that may been preceding the disease. They compare a group with the disease and a group without the disease.
What is a cohort method? The epidemiologist studies 2 populations: 1 with contact with disease the other without any contact with disease and they are compared with one another for differences such as in soilder's and civilians and there incidence of disease.
Experimental epidemiology Begins with a hypothesis about a particular disease; controlled experiments are then conducted with a group of people. Example a hypothesis about a drugs effectiveness, the group will be randomly divided &half of the group will recieve drug, half placebo.
Morbidity rate The number of people affected by a disease in a given period of time in relation to the total population ( incidence of a specific notifiable disease).
Mortality rate The number of deaths resulting from a disease in a population in a given period of time in relation to a total population ( deaths from notifiable diseases).
Notifiable diseases? Diseases for which physicians are required by law to report cases to the U.S. Public Health Services. As of 2008, a total of 63 infectious diseases were reported at a national level.
What is incubation period? The interval between the initial infection and the first appearance of any signs or symptoms. Time of incubation depends on microorganism.
What is the prodromal period? A relatively short period that follows the incubation period in some diseases. characterized by early, mild symptoms of disease, such as general aches and malaise.
What is period of illness? The disease is most severe. The person exhibits overt signs and symptoms of disease, such as fever, chills, muscle pain (myalgia), sensitivity to light (photophobia), sore throat and lymph node enlargement. # of WBC's increase, body is fighting infection.
What is period of decline? The signs and symptoms subside. The fever decreases, and feeling of malaise diminish. During this phase. which can take from less than 24 hrs to several days the patient is vulnerable to secondary infections.
What is the period of Convalescence? The person regains strength and the body returns to its pre-disease state. Recovery has occurred.
Indirect contact transmission Occurs when an agent of disease is transmitted from its reservoir to a susceptible host bu means of a non-living object. Ex. are tissues, handkerchiefs, towels bedding, drinking cups, utensils, toys and money.
Created by: KJones040607