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Nutrition 4-Extra


Vitamin A retinol-animal, carotene-plant.
Function Of Vitamin A Normal Vision, healthy skin bones and teeth, fights infection, Antioxidant
Deficiency Of vitamin A Night blindness, keratosis, lowers resistance skin changes, reduced growth.
Toxicity Of vitamin A headache, blurred vision, bone & joint pain, dry skin, poor appetite, yellow skin, death
Food Sources Vitamin A retinol-liver, milk, egg yolk, butter, fish, liver oil, yellow foods, dark green leafy vegetables, rfuits
Vitamin D calciferol "sunshine vitamin"
Function Of Vitamin D enables body to utilize and retain calcium and phosphorous, builds strong bones and teeth, can be manufactured by the body is exposed to sunshine for 10-15 minutes 3 times per week.
Deficiency of vitamin D rickets, muscle cramps, tetany related to low calcium absorption
toxicity of vitamin D kidney stones
Food sources of vitamin D fish oils, fortified milk
Vitamin E tocopherol
Function of Vitamin E antioxidant, forms RBC's, muscle tissue, possible functions: increased sexual potency, decrease aging, senility and may prevent MI (heat attack)
deficiency of Vitamin E can cause breakdown of RBC's and anemia
Toxicity of Vitamin E can have excessive bleeding
Food sources of Vitamin E vegetables oils, whole grains, green vegetables, milk, meats, and fish.
Vitamin K phlloquinine( menadione)
Function of Vitamin K essentail of normal clotting of blood, must be present in liver for prothrombin production
Deficiency of vitamin K Unlikey in adults, newborns lack bacteria in intetine, cannot produce prothrombin beeded for clotting and are givin injections(aquamephyton)
toxicity of vitamin k jaundice in infants
food source of vitamin k dark green leafy vegetables, liver, dairy products
Vitamins with antioxidants A,C,E
Vitamin C ascorbic acid
function of vitamin c wound and fracture healing, increases iron absorption, functions as antioxidant, helps resist infections
deficiency of vitamin C scurvy, abnormal formation of bones and teeth, dry skin, anorexia
toxicity of vitamin c kidney stones, blood disorders
food sources of vitamin c fresh raw fruits and vegetables, citurs fruits, tomatoes, potatoes
B1 Thiamine
function of Vitamin B1 metabolism if CHO, normal appetite and digestion proper nerve function
Deficiency if vitamin B1 anorexia, indigestion, constipation, berberi, muscle fatigue, and anxiety. Tea and raw fish destroy 50% of thiamine.
toxicity of vitamin B1 unknown
food sources of vitamin B1 whole grains, liver, pork, wheat germ, and yeast. (This vitamin is lost in miling process and must be added back. (enriched) to flour required by government)
Vitamin B2 riboflavin
Function of vitamin B2 normal growth, metabolism of protein, healthy mucous membranes
deficiency of vitamin B2 cracking, sores, around mouth and nose, aneroxia, weight loss, difficulty swallowing and visual problems.
toxicity if vitamin B2 unknown
food sources of vitamin B2 whole grains and cerals, milk, liver, and green leafy vegetables. (Foods loose some of their riboflavin if exposed to sunlight)
vitamin B3 niacin
function of vitamin B3 normal growth, healthy skin, normal appetite and digestion, can be taken to lower cholesterol
deficiency of vitamin B3 pellagra-3 D's (Dermaitis, diarrhea, dementia)
toxicity of vitamin B3 hot flashes, liver disorders
food sources of vitamin B3 enriched breads, fish, turkey, beef, legumes
vitamin B5 pantothenic acid
function of vitamin B3 cellular metabolism needed to manufracture adrenal hormones and chemical needed to regulate nerve function. May slow aging process.
deficiency of vitamin B3 unlikely
toxicity if vitamin B3 may increase the need for thiamine
food sources of vitamin B3 animal tissue, whole grain cerals and legumes, and is manufactured by intestinal bacteria.
B6 Pyridoxine
Function of B6 protein metabolism, RBC formaction, nerve and brain function, helps manufacture antibidies and MAY relieve PMS symptoms and treat prostate inflammation
deficiency of B6 needs are increased 1. during pregnancy 2. periods of stress 3. if taking birth control pills 4. if taking INH to treat TB 5. Exposure to radiation (cancer treatment)
toxicity of B6 never damage, numbness/tingling in hands and feet and clumsiness
food sources of B6 whole grain cereals, wheat germ, organ meats and potatoes
B12 Cobalamin
Function of B12 essential for RBC's, INTRINSIC FACTOR a gastric secretion necessary for the absorption needed to maintain myelin
Deficiency of B12 pernicious anemia, moodiness, confusion
Toxicity of B12 unknown
Food sources of B12 meak, milk, eggs, cheese, yeast, soy milk for vegetarians. This is the only water soluble vitamin stored in the liver
The only water soluble Vitamin stored in the liver? B12
Function of biotin metabolism of glucose and fatty acids and normal body chemistry
deficiency of biotin rare except in infants or adults on long term TPN
toxicity of biotin unknown
food sources of biotin liver, kidney, egg yolk, tomatoes.
Folic Acid Folate
function of folic acid essential part of all body cells, part of DNA, cell renewal and growth.
Deficiency of folic acid neural tube defects, anemia, bleeding gums, diarrhea, weight loss
toxicity if folic acid can cause seziures in epileptics
food sources of folic acid liver, dark green leaft vegetables, Beans, oranges, cantaloupe and asparagus
calcium must have vitamin D for absorption, need most calcium in childhood, pregnancy and lactation
function of calcium strong bones and teeth, blood clotting, muscle function, heart action, nerve transmission
deficiency of calcium muscle tetany, rickets in children, osteoporosis in adults
toxicity of calcium kidney stones, calcium deposits in muscle tissue
food sources of calcium milk, cheese, dark green leafy vegetables, whole grain, and egg yolk
function of phosphorus strong bones and teeth, metabolism, maintain acid-base balance
deficiency of phosphorus bone loss, poor growth
toxicity of phosphorus hinders body's ability to absorb calcium
food sources of phosphorus carbonated soft drinks, milk cheese, meat, egg yolk
function of sodium maintains extracellular water balance, nerve and muscle function
deficiency of sodium weakness, nerve disorders, muscle cramps, loss of weight due to loss of water
toxicity of sodium water retention, thirst
food sources of sodium cured meats, canned and processed foods, cheese, table salt, baking powder
function of potassium normal muscle function, especially the heart, acid-base balance and fluid balance
deficiency of potassium muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmias and is assoicated with diuretic therapy
toxicity of potassium nausea, diarrhea, arrhythmias
food sources of potassium potatoes, oranges, banana's, whole grain cereals, dried peas, beans and instant coffee
function of magnesium formation of bones and teeth trasmission of nerve impulses
deficiency of magnesium muscle weakness, twitching, cardiac arrythmias
toxicity of magnesium nervous system disorders, can be fatal to kidney pts
food sources of magnesium whole grains, nuts, milk, meat
function of chlorine maintain acid-base balance, aids in digestion (gastric hydrochloric acid)
deficiency of chlorine unknown
toxicity of chlorine gastric upset--reflux
food sources of chlorine table salt
function of sulfa essential part of cell protein, hair skin, nails
deficiency of sulfa unknown
toxicity of sulfa unknown
food sources of sulfa animal protein, meat, milk, cheese, eggs
function on iron essential for making hemoglobin-the red part of blood that carries oxygen to the cells
deficiency of iron Iron deficiency enemia-
toxicity of iron toxic buildup in liver and pancreas
food sources of iron liver, organ meats, whole grains, and green vegetables
function of iodine essential for the proper function of thyroid glad
deficiency of iodine goiter, hyperthyroidism, cretinism
toxicity of iodine hyperthyroidism
food sources of iodine iodized salt and seafood
function of zinc aids in digestion, helps with insulin function, would healing, sense of taste and smell
deficiency of zinc diarrhea, skin rash, impaired sense of taste
toxicity of zinc rare
food sources of zinc shellfish, oysters, meats, milk, egg, whole grain
function of copper must be present for iron to make RBC's
deficiency of copper iron deficiency enemia
toxicity of copper rare
food sources of copper liver, seafood, whole grains, legumes, nuts,
function chromium metabolism of glucose
deficiency of chromium possible link to cardiovascular disease and diabetes
toxicity of chromium unknown
food sources of chromium whole grains, and cerals
function of fluoride strong bones and teeth, helps prevent dental carries, and prevent osteoporosis
deficiency of fluoride dental carries
toxicity if fluoride too much in water supply, discolortaion of teeth turns them brown
food sources of fluoride fluoridated water, fish, tea, eggs
Created by: ashleyh5809