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McC 8 Genetics/Adapt

McC 8 Genetics/Adaptations

Allele different forms of a gene for each variation of a trait of an organism
Dominant observed trait of an organism that mask the recessive form of a trait; these alleles show their effect on the phenotype whenever they are present in the genotype
Genetics study of heredity
Genotype combination of genes in an organism, genetic makeup
Heredity passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring
Heterozygous an organism has two different alleles for a trait; hybrid
Homozygous an organism has two identical alleles for a trait; pure
Phenotype a combination of the organism's genetic makeup and the environment's effect on that makeup; physical appearance
Recessive trait of an organism that can be masked by the dominant form of a trait
Trait characteristic that is inherited; can be either dominant or recessive
Gene part of the DNA code on a chromosome; controls traits
Homozygous Dominant two dominant alleles; BB
Heterozygous one dominant & one recessive allele; Bb
Homozygous Recessive two recessive alleles; bb
Probability likelihood that a particular event will occur
Punnett Square calculates all the genotypes of the offspring of a genetic cross; possible outcomes
Mutation a change in the DNA (genes) of an organism
Evolution change in a species over a long period of time
Species a group of similar organisms that can mate with one another and produce fertile offspring
Extinction the demise of a species; no more living memebers
Natural Selection organisms that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce at a greater rate than organisms that are not
Adaptive Radiation production of several species from one ancestral species
Mendel worked with pea plants; determined parents passed on one allele each to offspring; responsible for principle of independent assortment and law of segregation
Independent Assortment traits are inherited independently of one another
Law of Segregation a parent passes one allele for each trait to their offspring
adaptation behavior or structure that helps an organism survive
Sex Cells (gametes) contain half the normal number of chromosomes, in human 23
Behavioral Adaptations things (actions) organisms do to survive
Structural Adaptations physical features of an organism
Deceptive Coloration when an organism's color fools either its predators or prey
Advertising Coloration when animals and plants use color to be noticed (can be used to warn or attract animals)
Camouflage helps an organism blend in with its surroundings
Mimicry protects animals and plants from predators or hides them from prey because they look like other things
Estivation period of inactivity during dry, hot conditions
Hibernation period of inactivity during cold conditions
Created by: MCJH