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Study Guide Overview

What is quantitative research Collection and analysis of numerical data
What is qualitative research Collection and analysis of narrative and visual data
Quantitative Data Analysis Identify Statistical Relationships
Quantitative Hypothesis Formulated based on theory or knowledge gained while reviewing literature
Quantitative Beliefs Live in a stable world that we can measure and make generalizations about
Quantitative Scientific Method Deductive Reasoning
Quantitative Sample Size Large
Quantitative Approach: Correlation Collect data to determine if a relationship exists
Quantitative Approach: Causal-Comparative Attempts to determine the cause or reason for existing differences *Different from experimental because the researcher determines the cause-effect relationship
Cause Influences behavior
Effect Change that Occurs
Quantitative Approach: Experimental independent variable is manipulated while others are controlled
Internal Validity Degree in which observed differences are direct result of manipulation of independent variable
Increase internal validity decrease external validity
external validity degree to which results are generalizable to other groups
Random Sampling: Simple Random Use a table of random numbers
Random Sampling: Stratified Random Sampling Divide population into separate levels, select from separate levels
Random Sampling: Cluster Sample Select Groups Randomly
Random Sampling: Systematic Sampling Using a list of population and selecting every Kth person
Non-Random Sampling: Convenience Sampling Selects whoever is there
Non-Random Sampling: Purposive Sampling Selecting a sample believed to be representative
Non-Random Sampling: Quota Sampling selection based on required number needed
Qualitative Research Data Type Categorical
Qualitative Research Purpose Gain understanding of underlying reasons and motives Search for patterns, themes, and holistic features
Qualitative Hypothesis Doesn't state hypothesis prior to study
Qualitative Characteristics Research methods evolve as understanding deepens Meaning is situated in a particular perspective Small Sample Size
Qualitative Research Design: Advantages Depth and detail creates openness simulates experiences Researcher knows and understands participants small # of participants Data collection in natural environment hypothesis evolves
Qualitative Research Design: Disadvantages Subjective not repeatable small sample not easy to generalize
Qualitative Types of Research: Narrative Research How different humans experience the world
Qualitative Types of Research: Ethnographic Research Study of cultural patterns and perspectives of participants in natural settings
Qualitative Types of Research: Case Study Focuses on bounded system or unit of study
Hypothesis: Inductive Generalization based upon observations
Hypothesis: Deductive Derived from theory and provides evidence that supports, expands, or even contracts a theory
Qualitative Types of Research: Action Research Characteristics Data Drives Action Seeks Change Personally Involved Reflective Seeks Continuous Change
Action Research: Advantages Provides immediate feedback
Hypothesis: Null No relationship or difference among variables
Null Hypothesis: Type 1 error false positive
Null hypothesis: Type 2 error false negative
Valid they measure what they are intended to measure
Reliable Results should be the same when done by different people
Independent Variable Cause
Dependent Variable Effect
Nominal Variable Describes Categorical Data
Quantitative Variable: Ordinal Rank order with unequal units
Quantitative Variable: Interval Rank order with equal intervals
Quantitative Variable: Ratio Characteristics of the other levels but also true zero point
Action Research: Disadvantages Only valuable to those conducting it Results can't be applied in other settings May not produce valid results
Primary Resource First Hand Account
Secondary Resource Second Hand Information
Plagiarism No more than 30% can be directly quoted
Qualitative Instruments interviews and observations
Quantitative Instruments Paper/Pencil OR electronic
Frequency Number of times something occurs
Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Central Tendency Mean, Median, Mode
Mean appropriate for measuring interval or ratio data
Mode Appropriate for measuring nominal data
Median Appropriate for measuring ordinal data
Measures of Variability Range, Quartile Deviation
Range Difference between highest and lowest scores
Quartile Deviation 1/2 the difference between the upper and lower quartile
Descriptive Statistics Measurement Instruments: Cognitive Tests thinking ability
Descriptive Statistics Measurement Instruments: Affective Tests Measure attitude, emotion, interest, personality
Descriptive Statistics Measurement Instruments: \ Affective Tests: Likert Scale strongly agree - strongly disagree
Descriptive Statistics Measurement Instruments: Affective Tests: Semantic Scale Fair unfair 3 -3
Descriptive Statistics Measurement Instruments: Affective Tests: Rating Scales Always Almost Always Sometimes
Descriptive Statistics Measurement Instruments: Affective Tests: Thurstone Scale and Guttman Scale used to measure attitude
Descriptive Statistics Measurement Instruments: Affective Tests: Interest Inventory used to measure personal likes
Descriptive Statistics Measurement Instruments: Affective Tests: Projective Tests developed to eliminate some of the concerns with self report measures
Variance Amount of spread among scores
Standard Deviation Square root of the variance
Normal Curve 50% of scores above mean and 50% below & Measures of Central Tendency have the same value
Skewed not normally distributed
Standard Score Uses standard deviation units to express how far an individual's score is from the mean
T-Score Calculated by multiplying a z-score by 10 and adding 50
Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Relationship: Pearson r calculate relationship for interval or ratio data
Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Relationship: Spearman rho calculate relationships with ordinal data
Inferential Statistics determine how likely it will that results obtained from a sample are going to be obtained from the entire population
Descriptive Statistics helps researchers know how often or how frequent a score will occur
Inferential Statistics helps researchers know if they can generalize to a population
Inferential Statistics: t-Test used to determine whether 2 groups of scores are significantly different from one another Compares the observed differences between means with the expected differences
Inferential Statistics: ANOVA parametric test used to determine whether scores from 2 or more groups are significantly different at a selected probability level total variance of scores comes from variance between groups and variance within groups
Quantitative Purposes Generalize Results Describe Current Condition Investigate Relationships Study Cause/Effect Relationships Identify Statistical Relationships
Quantitative Characteristics Describes Predicts Numerical Data Controls Variables of Interest
Quantitative Research Topic Topic statement describes the variables of interest, relations among those variables, and aspects of the sample
Quantitative Research Advantages Broader STudy Large Sample Size Objectivity Replicable Personal Bias Avoided Validity LIttle time with participants Numerical Data Researcher Controls Environment
Quantitative Research Disadvantages Narrow Data Set No Narrative Data Collected out of context
Literature Review: Purpose ensure that you don't duplicate an existing study helps frame study helps identify research strategies
Literature Review: Steps 1. make a list of keywords 2. locate primary sources 3. evaluate source 4. abstract sources 5. analyze and organize sources 6. write review
Created by: klehman