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historical geol 3


Currents/Ocean Water Movement Marine Environments
deep-sea currents, cold and salty density contrast currents
Antarctic Bottom Water AABW
very cold dense water around Antarctica sinks AABW
flows along ocean bottoms northward AABW
North Atlantic Deep Water NADW
cold dense water from the Arctic Ocean NADW
sinks and flows southward above the AABW NADW
cool dense water from Mediterranean and Antarctica intermediate waters
sinks and flows above NADW intermediate waters
wind controlled upwelling zones
cool water moves to the surface upwelling zones
replaces water pulled from basin margins by gyres upwelling zones
water often rich in nutrients (Si, P, N) upwelling zones
wind driven Surface Waves
circular particle motion at sea Surface Waves
near-shore/shallow depths Surface Waves
elliptical particle motion Surface Waves
wave base/bottom = back and forth particle motion Surface Waves
waves steepen and break at very shallow depths Surface Waves
abrasion, concussion surf zone
particle rounding surf zone
strong erosion, winnowing Surface Waves
sediment size sorting, often cross-bedded Surface Waves
water/sediment motion parallel to the shore longshore drift/longshore currents
wave motion oblique to the shoreline longshore drift/longshore currents
rotation of the Earth beneath tidal bulges tides
result from gravitational attraction of sun and moon tidal bulges
. ~ 2 tidal cycles every 24 hours tides
zone effected by tidal water changes intertidal zone
large changes in environmental conditions intertidal zone
temperature changes environmental conditions
high particle concentration in the water environmental conditions
usually high a energy environment intertidal zone
often fringed by marshes intertidal zone
formed by low-growing plants marshes
low energy zones of mud accumulation marshes
usually dry supratidal zone
exceptionally high tides cause flooding supratidal zone
never exposed to air subtidal zone
zone of light penetration through ocean water Photic Zone
100-200 meters penetration Photic Zone
200 m is the ~ shelf break depth in many areas Photic Zone
life zone of the phytoplankton (microscopic plants) zone of photosynthesis
marine (flooded) extension of a continent Continental Shelf
represents 10% of the worlds continental area Continental Shelf
end of the Shelf is marked by the Shelf Break Continental Shelf
sediment collects here, builds up here Continental Shelf
majority of the Earth's sedimentary strata formed here Continental Shelf
zone of transition between continental and oceanic crust Continental Slope
deepening water, erosion/deposition by turbidity currents Continental Slope
cut by submarine canyons Continental Slope
zone of terrigenous sediment accumulation Continental Rise
~3-6 kilometers deep Abyssal plain
barrier islands Ocean Margins
parallel to shoreline barrier islands
sand build-up by wind and erosion barrier islands
lagoons or bays Ocean Margins
behind and protected by barrier islands lagoons or bays
shallow, quiet, often warm water lagoons or bays
often fringed by marshes in intertidal zone lagoons or bays
plant accumulations may form peat lagoons or bays
epicontinental sea Ocean Margins
semi-isolated epicontinental sea
broad flooding of low elevation continental areas epicontinental sea
example: Hudson Bay in Canada epicontinental sea
floaters Planktonic
phytoplankton living in the photic zone plants
diatoms phytoplankton
dinoflagellates phytoplankton
calcareous nannoplankton phytoplankton
zooplankton which eat other plankton animals
single cell Protozoans; forams, radiolarians zooplankton
planktonic Foraminifera- CaCO3 forams
SiO2 radiolarians
primarily swimmers like fish; multicellular organisms nektonic organisms
primarily bottom dwellers; multicellular organisms benthonic organisms
burrowing organisms benthonic organisms
boring organisms benthonic organisms
grazing organisms benthonic organisms
draw food from the water suspension feeders
consume sediment, use organics as food deposit feeders
amoeba-like organisms - benthic forams pseudopod feeders
fall in several categories bacteria
dictates the type of shell which can easily be built temperature
CaCO3 warm water
calcareous nannoplankton warm water
reefs warm water
forams warm water
SiO2 cold water
diatoms cold water
radiolarians cold water
generally ranges from 30-40 parts per thousand salts salinity
low salinity brackish water
ocean margin bays and lagoons brackish water
fresh water dilution from rivers brackish water
high salinity hypersaline water
ocean margin bays and lagoons hypersaline water
salt concentration by evaporation hypersaline water
Created by: lmulke1