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Cold War/Vietnam

History Exam Notes

What happened at Yalta and when was it? Yalta agreement was a wartime meeting of the "big three" (Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin) from Feb 4th 1945 to Feb 11th 1945. They met at Yalta, a black sea port in the USSR.
What was discussed at Yalta? The final defeat of Germany, what to do with Germany, the border of Poland, how to deal with countries formally occupied by Germany
VE Day? Victory in Europe Day commemorates May 8th 1945 when the World War II Allies formally accepted the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitler's Third Reich.
What was the Potsdam Declaration? A statement calling for the surrender of Japan in WW II. The document issues (26th July 1945) outlined the terms of surrender and stated that if Japan didn't surrender it would face prompt and utter destruction.
What happened when Japan rejected the Potsdam Declaration? America dropped two atomic bombs: Hiroshima and Nagasaki
When did Japan surrender? August 15 1945 - thus ending the second world war
Who were the Allied Powers? UK, USA, USSR
Who were the Axis Powers? Germany, Italy, Japan
What is communism? a system where all economic and social activity is controlled by a totalitarian state dominated by a single and self-perpetuating political party.
What was the holocaust? the systematic mass slaughter of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps during World War Two
What does the hammer and sickle stand for? USSR
What do the stars and stripes stand for? USA
What does the bulldog/Union Jack stand for? UK
What does the Swastika stand for? Germany
What was the USA's economic and political system? Capitalist (private property and the right to pursue profit and wealth) and Democratic (by the people for the people of the people)
What was the USSR's economic and political systems? Communist (state ownership and one party state)
Who was the USA lead by? Truman - who believed communism was evil
Who was the USSR lead by? Stalin
What caused the Cold War? 1. Different Beliefs about economic, social and political systems 2. Different aims for post war Europe 3. Resentment about past events
What historical event did the USA resent? The Nazi-Soviet pact which was a major part in starting World War Two
What historical event did the USSR resent? They believed the USA and UK delayed attacking France to let Germany and Russia destroy each other on the eastern front. That the USA didn't share the atomic bomb. USA and UK involvement in their civil war in 1917
Whats a superpower? an extremely powerful nation, especially one capable of influencing international events and the acts and policies of less powerful nations
What was the Iron Curtain speech at Fulton? Churchill went to Fulton in America and gave a speech where he said a "shadow" had fallen on eastern Europe, which was now cut off by an "iron curtain"
When did the Iron Curtain Speech occur? 5th March 1946
What was the Truman Doctrine? March 12 1947 - "I believe that it must be the policy of the US to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures". Gave $400 million to greece and turkey to deal with the Guerrilla War.
What was the Marshall Plan? to strengthen Europe's democracies and stop soviets. July 1947, called the European Recovery Program gave $13 billion between 1948-1952. By 1952, those countries had doubled their prewar economic production. USSR and it's countries declined help.
When was the Berlin Blockade? May 1948 to March 1949
What happened in May 1949? The German Federal Republic (West) and the German Demographic Republic (East) were formed.
When did the Berlin Wall go up? Aug 13 1961
Why did the Berlin Wall go up? To stop people fleeing from the East to the West.
When was the Berlin wall pushed down? 9th Nov 1989
When did Stalin die? 1953
When did the two Germanys sign a treaty to their union with social and legal aspects? 31st August 1990
When did the two Germanys unite? 3rd October 1990
How long was Germany divided? 45 years
What was French Indo-China? Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia
Who invaded Vietnam during the second World War? Japan
Who was the Vietminh lead by? Ho Chi Minh
What did the Vietminh want Vietnam to become? a communist independent country
What happened in 1954? France were defeated at Dien Bien Phu and Vietnam was divided into North Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh and South Vietnam
What was Australia's foreign policy in 1949? Communism in Asia was a threat to Australia. Australia needed strong friends eg USA Australia had to show it was a loyal ally It was in Australia's best interest to keep any threats as far away as possible - "Forward Defence"
What happened due to Australia's foreign policy? Australia joined the Korean War in 1950 Australia signed the ANZUS treaty in 1951 Australia signed the SEATO Alliance in 1954 Australia sent troops to Malaya in 1955
Why did Australia become involved in the Vietnam war? Communism was a threat to Australia To show the USA it was a loyal ally Keep communism as far away as possible
Did the majority of Australian's support the Vietnam war in 1962? Yes
Who were Conscientious Objectors? pacifists who objected to war, and objected to conscription as it denied citizen's rights
Who were the Nashos? National Conscription men
When was conscription introduced? November 1964 - all young men had to register for national service at the age of 20 to increase army size
When were the troops withdrawn? December 1972
When were the first Australian's sent to Vietnam? July 1962
Why did Australia's opinion of the Vietnam War change? It was a civil war, and enough people had been injured or killed, wanted no more conscription (Save Our Sons), The media brought back horrific images and videos which shocked and scared people.
What were the Moratorium Marches? 1970 - two anti war marches, one in Melbourne, one in Sydney, were called the Vietnam Moratorium marches and focused all the anti-war sentiment.
What was lowered due to the Vietnam war? Drinking age and voting age
When was the Welcome Home ceremony for the vets? 1987
Why were the vets treated badly? The war was lost and it wasn't considered a "real war"
Why were the soliders left bitter and angry? jungle fighting against irregular guerilla forces using non-standard techniques eg. agent orange.
What was the lottery? The government would call out birthdays of all the 20 year olds who were conscripted and if your birthday was called then you were off to war to be a nasho.
Created by: 1427354835