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Med Surg Final Exam

Med surg final exam

QuestionAnswer
Abortion Medically any loss of a child before twenty weeks gestation
DNC To scrap the cervix after abortion
Cryosurgery the use of subfreezing tempuratures to perform surgery, commonly used for genetial warts, cutaneous tags, seborrheic keratosis, acitinic keratoses, and others.
Anemia deficent number of red blood cells
Amenorrahea no bleeding
Menorrhagia excessive bleeding longer than 7 days
Metrorrhagia irregular break through bleeding
oligomenorrhea long periods inbetween bleeding
Treatment for Gonorrhea penicillin, rocephin (if pregnant), and suprax, cipro, floxin or levaquin are one time dose.
Treatment of syphilis benzathine (panicillin G)
sexually transmitted diesease/infection charactorized by distinct stages of effects over a period of years syphilis
bone healing stage that occurs 3 weeks to six months after intial injury, important to prevent movement at this stage ossification
marked by bradycardia, irregular respiratory rate & systolic hypertension cushings triad
Abbreviation for a lab test used to check for inflammation ESR
Type traction used with hip fractures russell
2 words: type of cast used for proximal position of femur fractures hip spica
Cells in a common form of skin cancer basal
Type of back surgery laminectomy
Type of headache most commonly affects younger females migraine
Disorder of increased intraocular pressure, evaluated by a tono-pen glaucoma
. Loss of elasticity of the eye develops with advancing age presbyopia
Drainage containing blood (this word is spelled 2 different ways use spelling without the “E”) sanguinous
Dizziness vertigo
May be the result of fluid shifting into the interstitial space leaving the body fluid depleted hypovolemia
Increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine kyphosis
. Ringing sound in the ears, can be caused by Lasix tinnitus
Type of posturing, pulling into the body decorticate
Procedure that a “cleansing” agent is introduced into the vagina under low pressure, advise patients to ONLY do so if for a medical reason discussed with a health care provider douche
. Drug used to treat osteoporosis fosamax
Stage of bone healing where callus formation continues consolidation
Operative procedure designed to improve or restore hearing tampanoplasty
Characteristics of tertiary syphilis gummas
Inflammation of the cornea (use letter “T”) karititis
Disease that results in skeletal pain pagets disease
Furuncle of the margin of the eyelid hordeolum
Formula used for fluid replacement in burn victims parkland
Disease resulting in acute attacks of vertigo, nausea & vomiting meniere
Type of test in which the ear is irrigated with warm water & cold water, in a positive test both irrigations will produce nystagmus caloric
Infection into the bone osteomyelitis
Type of cancer that is rising faster than any other malignancy in the US melanoma
Yellow discoloration of the skin & mucous membranes caused by abnormal amounts of bilirubin in the blood bilirubin
slowed pulse rate bradycardia
General class for drugs such as: beta blockers & calcium channel blockers antihypertensives
Use of subfreezing temperature to destroy tissue cryosurgery
Sexually transmitted disease/infection that many times coincides with Chlamydia Gonorrhea
. Drainage that contains pus purulent
from a chemical, thermal, or electrical medium. Results burn
what is the name of a slowly growing papule with a pearly white center basal cell carcinoma
what type of isolation must a patient be in after a bone marrow transplant protective or reverese isolation
general type of meds used to treat vomiting associated with chemotherapy antimetics
tumor that does not spread to other tissues or organs benign tumor
classification of drugs that you would expect as immediate care for a patient with acute closed angled glaucoma cholenergic agents
a normal finding during a caloric test vertigo
this type of glaucoma has no symptoms of pain or pressure opened angled glaucoma
the name of inflammation of the fluid filled sac commonly found at joints bursitis
bone that has walled itself off created a barrier to antibiotics sequestrum
this type of traction is used for patients with hip fractures russells traction
topical corticosteriod ointments can cause this and must be assessed by the nurse on folow up visits thinning of the skin
what type of neoplasm is related to retrovirus kaposis sarcoma
you would expect to see this amount of output in a severly burned patient during the emergant phase 200-400ccs per hour
this lesion has vasularity and is bright red with radiaing blood vessels caused by dialation spider angioma
during this phase in a patient with a burn injury the patient is at most risk for shock emergant phase
maliginancy charactorized by a persistant lesion of the nipple and aerola with or without a palpable mass pagets disease
this STI can cause infertility, fever, arthragia and/or arthritis gonorrhea
treatment for this disorder is to inhibit estrogen production a TAH may be nessecary endometriosis
this may be caused by hormonal changes during menopause and lactation that results in drying the abdominal wall as well as endometriosis dyspareunia
this is the benign breats lumps that are found in women ages 15-25 that occurs with estrogen sensitivity fibroandemoas
treatment of chlamydial infections "silent disease", vibramycin, zithromax, alterntives of floxin or levaquin
lymphogranuloma venereum rare in the US, vibramycin, or erythromycin
Genital Herpes acyclovir, valtrex, famvir these drugs inhibit viral replication and supress frequent occurances
Genital Warts caused by HPV, treated with TCA or BCA to remove warts. Podophyllin resin from small warts.
Hormone replacement therapy HRT helps retard bone loss andmay help prevent osteoporosis, also helps to minimize changes in old age.
What is HRT hormone replacement therapy estrogen for women without a uterus, and estrogen and progesterone for women wih a uterus
endometriosis presence of normal healthy tissue in sites outside the endometrial cavity. Not well understood patient may experience dysmenorrhea, infertility, pelvic pain, dyspareunia, painfull bowel movements and dysuria
menopause cessation of menses with declining ovarian function. Usually takes place after 1 yr amenorrhea
endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic maliginancy accounting for 50% of femal genital tract neoplasms. The average age is 61. Survival rate of 94%. Major risk factor is estrogen. The first sign is abnormal uterine bleeding is postmenopausal women.
subtotal hyserectomy removal of uterus without removing cervix
total hysterectomy removal of uterus and cervix
panhysterectomy removal of uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes and ovaries
benign tumors end with oma (papilloma, adenoma)
maliginant tumors end in carcinoma, sarcoma
benign ovarian tumors polycystic ovaian syndrome, multiple small ovarian follicles, increase LSH and decrease in FSH. Hirtuism (abnormal facial hair, or hair growth)
diagnostic tests for ovarian cancer no screening test exists, should have yaerly bimanual pelvic exam, postmenopaulsal women should not have palpable ovaries.
ovarian cancer patho can metastisize directly by shedding malignant cells or by lymphatic spread
ovarian cancer clinical manifestation abdominal discomfort, pelvi heaviness, loss of appetite, feeling of full ness, change in bowel habits
what can be used to visualize vascular changes in ovarian cancer color doppler imaging
what can be used to detect ovarian masses abdominal or vaginal ultrasound
what is stage one collabeative care for ovarian cancer a TAH and salpingoophorectomy
what collaboative care is used for stage two ovarian cancer external abdominal and pelvic radiation, intrapareoneal radiation, systemic combonation of chemotherapy after removal of tumor
what surgical procedures are used for ovarian cancer sub and total hysterectomy, panhysterectomy, simpla and radial vulvectomy, vaginectomy, radial hysterectomy, pelvic exenteration
lyme disease transmitted by a bit of an infected deer tick. Called the great imitator bc it can mimic other diseases such as MS, monoucleosis, and menigitis.
if lymes disease is not treated what will it cause nervous system problems, severe head aches, temprary facial paralysis (bells palsy), or poor motor coordination. In late disease arthritis and swelling may occur in larger joints.
what is gout caused by an increase in uric acid production, under excretion of uric acid by the kidneys, or increased intake of foods containing purines
chronic gout is charactorized by multiple joint involvement and visible deposites of sodium urate crystals called tophi
what drugs are used in pain management with gout NSAIDS, colchicine
Benign Tumors well differentiated, encapsulated, expansive mode of growth, charatoristics similar to parent cel
Maliginant Tumors able to metastisize, infiltrative and expansive, frequent reoccurance, moderate to marked vascularity
Maliginant Cell charactoristics rapid cell division and growth, cells do not respect boundaries, ability to migrate, loss of differentation, and alteration in structure
How do you diagnose cancer look at anatomical site (where they originate from), histological analysis (graded on differentation), clinical stageing (is it contained), TNM (tumor size, spread to lymphnodes, metastisis),
what are the side effects with chemo and radiation therapy anorexia, skin reactions, pulmonary effects, gastrointestion l effects, reprductive efects (potential for infertility).
what is chemotherapy used to reduce the number of cels in the tumor site, IV is the best route for chemo drugs,
what are the main labs to watch with a paient in chemo WBC,s, Platlete and RBC's (if platlet count fals below 50,000 assess for bleeding)
complications of cancer altered taste sensation, infection, superior vena cava syndrome, spinal cod compression syndrome, third space syndrome, syndrome of inappropriate ADH, hpercalemia, hypercalcemia, tumor lysis syndrome, cardiac tamponade, carotid atery rupture,
Wha is an intervention for a cancer patient dealing with malnutrition suggest supplements as soon as 5% wieght loss is noted,
How can you intervene in a patient dealing with taste alteration rt cancer teach the patient to experiment with spices and seasoning in atempt to mask alterations
what are the manifestations of superior venacava syndrome facial edema, distention ofneck and chest veins, siezures, headache
what is spinal cord compression presence of malignant tumor in epidural space
what are the manifestations of spinal cord compression intense localized and persistant back pain, mmtor weaknes and dysfunction, sensory loss, change i bowel or bladder function
What is third space syndrome shifting of fluid fom vascular space to interstitial space
what is a sign of third space syndrome hypervolemia
what is a syndrome of inapropriate ADH r/t cancer abnormal or sustained production of ADH, cancer cells are able to manufactor store and release ADH, some chemotheraputic agents stimulate the release.
What is the treatment for inappropriate ADH syndrome fluid restriction or IV 3% NACL
What cause hypercalcmia in cancer pts paratthyroid hormone like substance is secreted from cancer cells in absence of bony metastisis, immobility and dehydration can cantibute or exacerbate
what are the primary manifestations of hypercalcemia apathy, depression, fatigue, muscle weakness, polyuria and nocturia, anorexia, N/V
what is tumor lysis syndrome metabolic complication triggered by chemotherapy, results from rapid destruction of tumor cells
what are the four hallmark signs of lysis syndrome hyperurecemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia
how do you treat lysis syndrome the primay goal is to prevent renal failure and severe electrolyte imbalances, the primary treatment is to increase urine output by hydration, decrease uric acid concentrations
what is cardiac tamponade fluid accumulation in the paricardial sac, consrtiction of the pericardium, or pericarditis
What are the manifestations of cardiac tamponade dyspnea, tachycardia, anxiety, decreased LOC, pulsus paradoxis, distant, muted heart sounds.
how do you treat cardiac tamponade reduce fluid around the heart, establishent of paricardial window or indwelling paricardial catheter
what is a coronary artery rupture r/t cancer invasion of artery wall by tumor or erosion fallowing surgery or radiation
menieres disease symptoms caused by inner ear disease, vertigo, tinnitus, fluctuating hearing loss, and aural fullness. Hearing loss fluctuates with continueing attacks and hearing recovery is decreased with each episode and leads to hearing loss
bicarbonate 22-26
chloride 95-105
calcium 9-11
creatinine .5-1.5
folic acid 3-25
magnesium 1.5-2.5
potassium 3.5-5.5
sodium 135-145
uric acid male 4.5-6.5 female 2.5-5.5
mcv 82-98
MCH 27-33
platlet count 150-400
WBC count 4,500-10,000
what tests are use for HIV elisa sensitivity test, and western blot confirmatory tes
cranicocerebral trauma alteration in consiousness no matter how brief
scalp lacerations most minor type of head trauma, most major problem is infection
linear skull fracture break of bone without alterations of relationship of parts
depressed skull fracture inward indentation of the skull, low to moderate impact
comminuted skull fracture multiple linear fractures, bone into many pieces, direct high momentem impact
compaund skull fracture depressed skull fracture and scalp lacerated with communicating pathway to intracranial cavity: severe head injury
what is morphne contradicted in a patient with a tramatic injury
allogenic bone marrow transplant from a donor that has been determined a match from the reciepient, usually a family member, most commonly used in leukemia
autologous marrow transplant patients who recieve their own bon marrow
syngenic marrow transplant obtaining stem cells from an identical twin
crypreserved howbine marrow is frozen and preserved untill used
pancytopenc period when the patients own bone marrow is being prepared for reinjection after a large dose of chemo: usuallt takes two weeks for bone marrow to be ready., pt must be in protective isolation
graft vs. host disease the T lymphocytes from the donated bone marrow ecognize the recipients as foriegn and began to attack organs (liver, skin, and intestine)
peripheral stem cell transplant procedre is pretty much the same as BMT except that healing time is much less and less complucations are seen.
red bone marrow actively produces blood cels
stem cells RBCs, WBCs, and platlets develope from the tsem cell within the bone marrow
dual energy x-ray called DEXA, measures bone mass of spine, femur, forearm and total body. allows assessment of bone densitywith minimal radiation exposure
sprain injury to ligament structures surounding a joint usually caused by wrenching or twisting motion
strain excessive strching of a muscle and its acial shealth, often involves a tendon
fracture hematoma stage one healing: when the fracture occurs, a hematoma developes, that changes from aliquid to a semi-solid clot; happen 72 hours after injury
Granulation Tissue stage 2 healing: the hematoma converts to granulation tissue which produces the basis for a new bone substanced called ostiod
callus formation stage three healing: minerals are deposited into osteiod, to make new boen, evidence of callus formation can be confirmed by an xray
ossification stage three healing; occurs from 3-6 months after fracture, paient can be converted from a skeletal traction to a cast, or the cast can be removed
consolidation stage five healing; a callus begans to develope, the difference between bone fragmnets dimishes and eventually colses
romodeling stage six healing; excess bone tissue is reabsorbed into the final stage of bone healing, and union is completed. This phase occurs up to a year after fracure
russells taction used for fractures of femur or hip
bucks traction used for many conditions affecting hip, knee, femur or back.
casting a common procedure following a closed reduction. A fresh cast should never be covered with a blanket, or get wet or soiled
what is a lamenetomy used for surgery fro disk disease, to gain access to all or part of the protrding disk to remove it
osteomyelitis severe infection of the bonw marrow, bone and surrounding soft tissue, the most common infecting organism is staph
pagets disease skeletal bone disorder in which there is excessive bone reabsroption followed by replacement of normal bone marrow, the new bone is larger, diformed and weaker.
Rheumatoid arthritis chronic systemic disease charactorized by inflammation of connective tissue in the synoval joints
treatment of RA DMARDs, drug with potential to lessen the permenant effects of RA
anklosing spondylitis chronic inflammatory disease that primarily afects the axial skeleton. The cause in unknown, xray is essential fpr diagnosis.
Hodgkin's disease characterized by proliferation of abnormal giant, multinucleated cells called Reed-Sternberg cells which are located in lymph nodes
Hodgkin's Disease is classified as a lymphoma, which consists of malignant neoplasm’s that originate in the bone marrow and lymphatic structures resulting in proliferation of lymphocytes.
The main cells that destroy the normal structure of lymph nodes in Hodgkin's disease monocytes and macrophages
Normal WBC 4.0 to 11.0
Megace for patients with other cancers and AIDS to help with appetite
Myasthenia gravis a disease that affects the nervous system and the musculoskeletal system. In the nervous system, the nerve endings fail to release acetylcholine, which leads to problems in movement of the muscles
The most commonly affected muscles with myasthenia gravis the muscles of the eyes, face, neck, arms, and legs
Blood work in 85-90% of MG patients antibodies to acetylcholine receptors
the main difference between myasthenia crisis and cholenergic crisis with MA there is respiratory insufficency, with CA there is respiratory failure
what testing can be performed to distiguish between MA crisis and a cholinergic crisis TENSILON TESTING is performed: Patients are injected with edrophonium chloride (which is Tensilon), an anticholinesterase agent, and if muscle strength improves the patient has MG. If condition worsens, the patient is in cholinergic crisis and drugs to r
The reasoning behind a spinal cord injured patient being on high dose steroids to improve blood flow, and decrease edema at the site of SCI, reduction of posttraumatic spinal cord ischemia, improvement of nerve impulse conduction, and repression of the release of free fatty acids form spinal cord tissue
The three most critical potential infections that a spinal cord injury patient would be monitored for during the duration of his care pneumonia- stasis of secretions in the lungs, UTI- urinary stasis, and introduction of pathogens associated with presence of indwelling catheter, and spinal stabilization site infection.
Obstipation fecal impaction secondary to constipation, colonic perforation may occur
Perforation life threatening, causes abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever and elevated WBC count
Created by: ngemini0681 on 2007-04-25



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