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Bio 3


alleles two copies of a gene
single gene traits traits determined by a single gene
DOMINANT trait trait that is seen
recessive the hidden trait
gene instructions for building a trait
homozygous two of the same alleles for a gene
heterozygous two diff alleles for a gene, the dominant allele is the one that is shown
Phenotype outward appearance of an individual, includes behavior
genotype genetic make up of an individual
punnett square axes(outside) have genotype of indiv. inside has potential genotype of punnet square
law of segregation each parent only gives one allele to the gamete of the offspring
test cross makes it possible to find out the genotype of an individual showing the dominant allele
pedigree type of family tree with the traits of many family members
sex linked traits traits controlled by genes on the sex chromosome recessive more common in males dominant in females
carrier someone who has a recessive trait but does not show it
incomplete dominance when an observed trait is in between two homozygous traits ie snapdragon flowers turn pink
incomplete dominance punnet square Cr Cr Cw Cw Cr CwCr Cw Cw Cr CwCr C= gene for color w= white r=red
Co dominance hetero zygote displays characteristics of both homozygotes. neither masks the effects of the other
Multiple allelism when a single gene has more than two alleles
genes alternate form is an allele true
polygenic influenced by many different traits IE skin color and height
additive effects effects of from alleles of multiple genes that all contribute to the ultimate phenotype for a given characteristic
Pleiotropy when indiv genes influences multiple traits
who is effected more by sexlinkeed traits men because they only haveone X chromosome
what are genes carried on chromosomes
mendels law of assortment genes behave independent of each other. the inheritance patter of a
linked genes genes that are close to each other on the chromosome and are more likely to be inherited together
nondisjunction unequal distribution of chromosomes during meiosis ie downs syndrome fucks up in anaphase
reasons for mitosis growth and replacement(cells)
apoptosis cell suicide
fertilization the fusion of two reproductive cells
meiosis when organisms make reproductive cells, gametes, with only half of their chromosomal info Produces gametes that differ in terms of alleles
diploid cells with two copies of each chromosome (somatic cells)
hapliods cells with one copy of each chromosome (gametes)
gonads ovaries and testes
homologous pair the maternal and paternal copies of chromosomes
interphase chromosomes duplicate
meiosis 1 first division separation of homologous pairs
meiosis II sister chromatids separate into four haploid cells. two with a single copy of one chromosome two with another
Prophase I chromosomes condense and crossing over occurs
Metaphase I chromsomes line up in the center of the cell
anaphase I homologues are pulled to either side of the cell
telophase I and cytokinesis nuclear membrane forms around two sister chromatids and two daughter cells form
prophase II Chromosomes re condense
Metaphase II sister chromatids line up in the center of the cell
anaphase II sister chromatids are pulled to either side of the cell
Telophase II and Cytokinesis nuclear membranes reassemble and two daughter cell pinch into four haploid gametes
end result of Meiosis I and II creation of four haploid daughter cells
females produce larger gametes than males true
eggs have more cytoplasm than sperm true
crossing over occurs in prophase I. the exchange of some genetic info from the paternal homologue and the maternal homologue , causing a to have genetic info from each
advantages of sexual reproduction genetic differences between parent and offspring
disadvantages of sexual reproduction problems with mating
advantages of asexual reproduction efficient and quick
disadvant of asex reproduct no genetic diversity
an individuals sex is determined by the father true
sex determination half sperm get X half Y chromosome, if a sperm with a y gets to the egg then it is a boy if X girl
karyotype visual display of someones chromosomes
ecology study of individual interactions with their environment
population ecology studies the interaction between populations and their environment
karyotype visual display of someones chromosomes
ecology study of individual interactions with their environment
growth rate (r) birth rate - death rate
population ecology studies the interaction between populations and their environment
population growth exponential rXN N= number of individuals present
growth rate (r) birth rate - death rate
population density the number of individuals in an area
density dependent factors limitation on the growth of a population
carrying capacity max number that a population can have before fucking shit up
Logistical Growth r*N[K-N/K]
K Carrying capacity
density independent factors factors that strike down populations without regard to population size ie earthquakes, forest fires
density dependent factors factors that strike down populations due to population density ie food scarcity, disease, predators
buffon suggested earth was older than 6000
cuvier proved extnction through fossils
lamark suggested species change over time
lyell suggested that geological forces shaped the earth
darwims travels ship : beagle gal islands
mutation the change in a based pair that can be passed down to the next generation if it occurs in sex cells, most mutations suck some are helpful though
mutagen something that can cause dna mutation
genetic drift a random change in allele frequencies over a generation
fixation when there is only one type of allele for a trait in the population
natural selection 1 must be a variation of a certain trait 2 variation mus be inheritable(heritability) 3 individuals with one version of the trait must produce more offspring than the other
five primary lines of evidence for evolution. fossil records physical evidence that organisms lived in the past
five primary lines of evidence for evolution. biogeography patterns of geographic distrubutions of living organisms
five primary lines of evidence for evolution. molecular biology examination of life at individual levels of molecules
five primary lines of evidence for evolution. lab/field experiments using the scientific method to study evolution
Created by: 543707438