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Anatomy Chapter 9-10

Receptors Detect changes and generate impulses
Sensory neurons Transmit impulses from receptors to the central nervous system
Sensory tracts White matter in the spinal cord or brain that transmits the impulses to a specific part of the brain
Sensory areas feel and interpret the sensations
Projection The sensation seems to come from the area where the receptors were stimulated
Phantom pain The circumstance where the brain feels an amputated limb
Intensity Some sensations are felt more distinctly and to a greater degree than are others
The brain "counts" the impulses and projects a more _________ sensation intense
Contrast The effect of a previous or simultaneous sensation on a current sensation
Adaptation becoming unaware of a continuing stimulus
After-image The sensation remains in the consciousness even after the stimulus has stopped
Free nerve endings heat, cold, itch and pain
Free nerve endings also respond to any intense stimulus
Encapsulated nerve endings touch and pressure
Encapsulated nerve endings means that there is a cellular structure around the nerve ending
Cutaneous sense provide us with information about the external environment and also about the skin itself
Nueropathy Damage to nerves that impairs sensation
Chemical itching is the result of an irritant such as poison ivy sap or mosquito saliva stimulating the release of histamine in the skin
Mechanical itching may be caused by a coarse fabric against the skin, or by the slight movement of something such as a flea
The sensory areas for the skin are in the parietal lobes
Wetness is a learned sensation
Free nerve endings are also found in internal organs
Referred pain Pain originating in an internal organ that is felt in a cutaneous area
Referred pain is actually a creation of the brain
Stretch receptors detect stretching of muscles and generate impulses, which enable the brain to create a mental picture to know where the muscles are and how they are positioned.
Conscious muscle sense is felt by the parietal lobes
Unconscious muscle sense is used by the cerebellum to coordinate voluntary movements
Chemoreceptors in the mouth detect chemicals in solution in the mouth
Name the five general types of taste receptors Sweet, sour, salty, bitter and savory
The impulses from taste buds are transmitted by the facial and glossopharyngeal (7th and 9th cranial) nerves to the taste areas in the parietal-temporal cortex
Chemoreceptors in the nose detect vaporized chemicals that have been sniffed into the upper nasal cavities
olfactory receptors generate impulses carried by the olfactory nerves (1st cranial) through the ethmoid bone to the olfactory bulbs
Hunger and thirst are visceral sensations
The receptors for hunger and thirst are both senses are specialized cells in the hypothalamus
Conjunctiva The thin membrane that lines the eyelids
Conjunctivitis Inflammation of the conjunctiva
Tears are produced by the lacrimal glands
Tears contain lysozyme
Lysozyme is an enzyme that inhibits the growth of most bacteria on the wet, warm surface of the eye
The orbit is formed by the lacrimal, maxilla, zygomatic, frontal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones
The six extrinsic muscles of the eye are attach to the orbit and eyeball
The medial rectus muscle pulls the eyeball medially
The two oblique muscles rotate the eye
The cranial nerves that innervate the eyes muscles are oculomotor, trochlear and abducens
Sclera The thickest layer of the eyeball
The sclera is made of fibrous connective tissue that is visible as the white of the eye
Cornea the most anterior portion of the eye
The cornea has no capillaries
The cornea is the first part of the eye that refracts light rays
Choroid layer contains blood vessels and a dark blue pigment that absorbs light within the eyeball and thereby prevents glare
Ciliary body a circular muscle that surrounds the edge of the lens and is connected to the lens
The suspensory ligaments connects the ciliary body to the lens
Iris The colored part of the eye
Pupil the central opening of the eye
Contraction of the radial fibers dilates the pupil, which is a sympathetic response
The retina lines the posterior two-thirds of the eyeball and contains the visual receptors, the rods and cones
Rods detect only the presence of light
Cones detect color
Cones are the most abundant in the center of the retina
Macula lutea An area directly behind the center of the lens, where many cones are
age-related macular degeneration (AMD) loss of central vision
Ganglion neurons Neurons that carry impulses from rods and cones
The posterior cavity of the eye contains vitreous humor
Vitreous humor keeps the retina in place
The anterior cavity is found between the back of the cornea and the front of the lens
The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor, the tissue fluid of the eyeball
Aqueous humor is formed by the capillaries in the ciliary body, flows anteriorly through the pupil, and is reabsorbed by the canal of Schlemms
The ganglion neurons converge at teh optic disc and become the optic nerve
The optic nerves from both eyes come together at the optic chiasma
The visual areas are in the occipital lobes of the cerebral cortex
The ear contains the receptors for hearing and quilibrium
The outer ear consists of the aurical and the ear canal
The aurical is made of cartilage covered with skin
The ear canal is lined with skin that contain ceruminous glands
The middle ear is an air-filled cavity in the temporal bone
The eardrum is also called the tympanic membrane
The eardrum is stretched across the end of the ear canal and vibrates when sound waves strike it
Name the three auditory bones malleus, incus and stapes
The eustachian tube extends from the middle ear to the nasopharynx and permits air to enter or leave the middle cavity
The inner ear A cavity called the bony labyrinth
Perilymph The fluid found between bone and membrane
Endolymph the fluid within the membranous structures of the inner ear
Organ of Corti spiral organ
The auditory areas in the _____________ of the cerebral cortex receive impulses from both ears temporal lobes
Utricle and saccule are membranous sacs in an area called teh vestibule
The three semicircular canals are fluid-filled membranous ovals oriented in three different planes
Aortic arch receives blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart, curves over the top of the hear
Carotid arteries the branches of the aortic arch that take blood through the neck on the way to the brain
Pressoreceptors in the carotid sinuses and aortic sinus detect changes in blood pressure
Chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and the aortic body detect changes in the oxygen and carbon dioxide content and the pH of blood
Endocrine glands are ductless
Amines Simple hormones that are structural variations of the amino acid tyrosine
Proteins Hormones that are chains of from 50 to 200 amino acids
Hormones Powerful chemicals that have targets within the body
Steroids Cholesterol is the precursor for the steroid hormones, which include a variety of hormones
ADH Anti-diuretic hormone
Hormones often induce a negative feedback mechanism
Posterior pituitary gland anti-diuretic hormone, and oxytocin
ADH and oxytocin are produced by the __________ and stored in the ____________________ hypothalamus, posterior pituitary gland
ADH increases the reabsorption of water by kidney tubules, which decreases the amount of fluid formed
Dehydration stimulates the secretion of ADH
ADH is also called vasopressin
Oxytocin stimulates contraction of the uterus at the end of pregnancy, stimulates mammary glands
Oxytocin is one of the few positive feedback mechanisms within the body
AHD and oxytocin are both with similar structure, having _____ amino acids each peptide hormones, nine
Anterior pituitary gland secretes growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, lutenizing hormone
FSH Follicle Stimulating Hormone
FSH stimulates (women) production of eggs in the ovary
TSH Thyroid-stimulating hormone
TSH stimulates the thyroid, causes it to secrete more thyroxine and T3
ACTH Adrenocorticotropic hormone
ACTH increases the secretion of cortisol from the adrenal gland
PRL Prolactin
PRL targets the mammary glands
GH Growth hormone
GH increases protein synthesis, rate of mitosis, increases the use of fats
LH Luteinizing hormone
LH affects (women) causes ovulation
LH affects (men) increases secretion of testosterone by testes
FSH stimulates (men) sperm production in testes
Thyroid gland secretes Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) and calcitonin
T3 and T4 affect metabolism/energy production
Calcitonin decreases amount of calcium that goes from bones to blood
PTH parathyroid hormone
PTH affects causes more calcium from bone to blood, increases amount of calcium absorbed in small intestine
Hypoclcemia Low blood calcium level
PTH is stimulated by hypocalcemia
Adrenal glands are located one on top of each kidney
Adrenal medulla secretes epinephyrine and norepinephrine
Parts of adrenal gland medulla and cortex
vasoconstriction blood vessels get smaller
Norepinephrine causes vasoconstriction in skin and skeletal muscles
Epinephrine causes increase in heart rate and force of hearbeat, causes vasodilation in skeletal muscles, dilates the bronchioles, decreases peristalsis, and increases energy production
Adrenal cortex stimulated by lack of sodium or lack of blood pressure
Aldosterone increases the reabsorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium by the kidney tubules
Cortisol decreases inflammation
Cortisol is released during psychosocial stress
Pancreas is located posterior to the stomach
Endocrine gland secretes directly into bloodstream
Exocrine gland secretes into a duct
Pancreas is both an _______ and _______ gland endocrine and exocrine
Glucagon secreted by pancreas, travels through blood to liver, which releases and breaks down glucose to glycogen
Glycogen Stored glucose
Two places we store glycogen muscles and liver
Beta cells produce insulin
Alpha cells produce glucagon
Somatostatin decreases secretion of insulin/glucagon
delta cells secrete somatostatin
Ovaries secrete steroids estrogen and progesterone and the protein inhibin
Estrogen promotes the maturation of the ovum in the ovarian follicle and stimultes the growth of blood vessels in the endometrium
Estrogen is stimulated by FSH
Progesterone promtoes the storage of lycogen and the further growth of blood vessels in the endometrium, which thus become a potential placenta. It also influences the secretory cells of the mammary glands
Progesterone is stimulated by LH
Inhibin (women) decreases the secretion of FSH by the anterior pituitary gland and GnRH by the hypothalamus
Testosterone Steroid hormone secreted by the interstitial cells of teh testes
Testosterone is stimulated by LH
Inhibin (men) decreases the secretion of FSH
Inhibin is stimulated by increased testosterone
Melatonin is produced by pineal gland
PGs Prostaglandins
PGs are involved in inflammation, pain mechanisms, blood clotting, vasoconstriction and vasodilation, contraction of the uterus, reproduction, secretion of digestive glands and nutrient metabolism.
A hormone must first bond to a ______ receptor
Liver cells have receptors for insulin, glucagon, grwoth hormone, and epinephrine
Bone cells have receptors for grwoth horomone, PTH, and calcitonin
Cells of the ovaries and testes have receptors for FSH and LH
Protein hormones usually bond to receptors of the cell membrane
Adenyl cyclase snythesizes a substance called cyclic adenosine monophosphate
Steroid hormones are soluble in the lipids of the cell membrane and diffuse easily into a target cell
Created by: akikoandpoog