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Biochemistry 2 E1

Biochemistry 2 Palmer Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
what does excess product do inhibits the pathway
what does excess reactant do stimulates the pathway
if there is scarce product this stimulates the pathway
if there is scarce reactants this inhibits the pathway
are enzymes inhibited or stimulated both
how are pathways regulated 1)energy charge 2)respiratory quotient 3)products and reactants
what 3 systems create ATP 1)ATP-PC system 2)glycolysis 3)aerobic system
what are details about the ATP-PC system 1)coupled reaction 2)fast replacement of ATP 3)short duration (5-10 secs) 4)predominate in short explosive activity
ADP + creatine phosphate = ATP + creatine
what is the key enzyme of the ATP-PC system creatine kinase
what products inhibit the ATP-PC system ATP creatine
what reactants stimulate the ATP-PC system 1)ADP 2)AMP 3)creatine phosphate
what type of muscle fiber would contain higher concentrations of creatine kinase fast twitch
where is the ATP-PC system located cytosol-mitochondria
what is the product of the ATP-PC system ATP
what are the reactants of the ATP-PC system 1)ADP 2)AMP 3)creatine phosphate
what is the key enzyme for the ATP-PC system creatine kinase
what does glycolysis mean carbohydrate breakdown
is glycolysis aerobic or anaerobic anaerobic
what are the 2 types of glycolysis 1)fast glycolysis 2)slow glycolysis
what is the main product of glycolysis ATP
what are additional products of glycolysis 1)pyruvate 2)lactic acid 3)alanine 4)NADH
what is the rate limiting enzyme of glycolysis phosphofructokinase (PFK)
what is glycolysis stimulated by 1)increase in ADP 2)increase in AMP 3)increase in inorganic phosphate 4)increase in ammonia
what is glycolysis inhibited by 1)increase in ATP 2)increase in creatine phosphate 3)decrease in pH
what type of muscle fiber would contain higher concentrations of PFK fast twitch
where is glycolysis located cytosol
what are the products of glycolysis 1)ATP 2)NADH 3)pyruvate 4)lactic acid 5)alanine
what are the reactants of glycolysis 1)glucose 2)ADP 3)AMP 4)Pi
what is the key enzyme for glycolysis PFK (phosphofructokinase)
what are the 2 components involved with the aerobic system 1)krebs cycle 2)electron transport system
what is oxidized in the aerobic system 1)fats 2)carbohydrates 3)proteins
what is oxidation addition of oxygen, removal of hydrogen
what is reduction deletion of oxygen, addition of hydrogen
what is chemiosmotic theory when protons flow through a special protein, ATP is created
what system has the greatest production of ATP aerobic system
what is the location of the aerobic system mitochondria
what are the products of the aerobic system 1)ATP 2)NADH 3)FADH2
what are the reactants of the aerobic system 1)fat, carbohydrates, proteins 2)ADP 3)AMP 4)Pi 5)acetyle 6)citrate 7)NAD 8)FAD
what is the key enzyme of the aerobic system dehydrogenases
what is the intensity and time for the ATP-PC system very high, 0-5 secs
what is the intensity and time for glycolysis high, 30 secs to 2 min.
what is the intensity and time for the aerobic system low, more than 3 min.
what is the order from fastest to slowest for pathways 1)ATP-PC 2)fast glycolysis 3)slow glycolysis 4)aerobic metabolism carbohydrate 5)aerobic metabolism fat
what is the order from most to least for how much ATP is made 1)aerobic metabolism fat 2)aerobic metabolism carbohydrate 3)slow glycolysis 4)fast glycolysis 5)ATP-PC
based on the ratio of carbon dioxide expired to oxygen utilized you can determine what what fuel type is being oxidized (carbohydrate or fat)
if you measure a RQ that equals 1.0 it means what reaction is occurring carbohydrate burning
if you measure a RQ that equals 0.71 it means what reaction is occurring fat burning
during exercise, more carbohydrate and fat are burned aerobically. the percentage of fat being burned is decreasing. does this mean that less fat is being burned no, greater fat and carbohydrate burning just a lower percentage of fat
fat is burned where mitochondria
where is the peak fat burning at 50-60% of maximal aerobic capacity
increasing RQ means what more carbohydrate and fat are being burned
what are macronutrients 1)carbohydrates 2)fats 3)proteins
what does exothermic mean energy releasing (delta G is negative)
what does endothermic mean energy requiring (delta G is positive)
delta G must be _______ for the reaction to occur negative
what pathways are energy releasing 1)glycolysis 2)krebs cycle 3)beta oxidation 4)glycogen degradation
what pathways are energy requiring 1)gluconeogenesis 2)fatty acid synthesis 3)glycogen synthesis
what is energy utilized for 1)creating ion gradients 2)producing mechanical motion 3)synthesis of molecules 4)production of heat
what are the 2 molecules that give off more energy than ATP 1)phosphoenolpyruvate 2)creatine phosphate
what does a high energy charge tell the cell to do 1)build fat 2)build glycogen 3)build glucose
what does a low energy charge tell the cell to create ATP 1)run phosphocreatine system 2)run glycolysis 3)run the aerobic system
what is the universal carrier of acyl groups coenzyme A
what are common reactions 1)phosphorylation 2)isomerization(mutation) 3)redox reaction (oxidaton/reduction reactions)
what does phosphorylation do transfer a phosphate group from one molecule to another
what is the enzyme type for phosphorylation kinase i.e. creatine kinase, hexokinase
what does isomerization do compounds of the same molecular formula but with different arrangement of the atoms
what does a mutation reaction do shifting of a group from one location to another within the same molecule
what is the enzyme name for a oxidation/reduction reaction oxidoreductase
what is the class name for oxidation/reduction reactions dehydrogenase
what is the purpose of glycolysis breaks down glucose
what are the products of glycolysis 1)ATP 2)NADH 3)pyruvate 4)lactate and alanine
in general what does the 1st half of glycolysis "do" 1)bring glucose into the cell 2)change it into an "energy rich sugar"
in general what does the 2nd half of glycolysis "do" 1)get ATP 2)create an end product that can be further oxidized
what is the location of glycolysis cytosol
in the first step of glycolysis what happens glucose ----> glucose 6-phosphate
what is the key enzyme in the first step of glycolysis hexokinase
what type of reaction occurs in the first step of glycolysis phosphorylation
what type of reaction occurs in the second step of glycolysis isomerization
what happens in the 2nd step of glycolysis aldehyde---->ketone
what is the key enzyme in the 2nd step of glycolysis phosphoglucose isomerase
what type of reaction is the 3rd step of glycolysis phosphorylation
what happens in the 3rd step of glycolysis fructose 6-phosphate---->fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
what is the key enzyme of the 3rd step of glycolysis phosphofructokinase (PFK)
what happens in the 4th step of glycolysis fructose 1,6-bisphosphate ---> dihydroxyacetone phosphate
what is the key enzyme in the 4th step of glycolysis aldolase
what type of reaction is the 5th step of glycolysis isomerization
what happens in the 5th step of glycolysis dihydroxyacetone phosphate ----> glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate
what is the key enzyme in the 5th step of glycolysis triose phosphate isomerase
what kind of reaction is in the 6th step of glycolysis oxidative phosphorylation
what happens in the 6th step of glycolysis glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate ----> 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
what is the key enzyme in the 6th step of glycolysis G3P dehydrogenase
what happens in the 7th step of glycolysis 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate -----> 3-phosphoglycerate
what is the key enzyme in the 7th step of glycolysis phosphoglycerate kinase
what type of reaction is in the 8th step of glycolysis mutation
what happens in the 8th step of glycolysis 3-phosphoglycerate ----> 2-phosphoglycerate
what is the key enzyme in the 8th step of glycolysis phosphoglycerate mutase
what type of reaction is the 9th step of glycolysis dehydration
what happens in the 9th step of glycolysis 2-phosphoglycerate ----> phosphoenolpyruvate
what is the key enzyme in the 9th step of glycolysis enolase
what happens in the 10th step of glycolysis phosphoenolpyruvate -----> pyruvate
what is the key enzyme in the 10th step of glycolysis pyruvate kinase
what are the entry points in the fructose 1-phosphate pathway 1)dihydroxyacetone phosphate 2)glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
what is the entry point in the galactose pathway glucose 6-phosphate
what are the 3 key enzymes 1)phosphofructokinase 2)hexokinase 3)pyruvate kinase
when ATP binds to the enzyme what happens to PFK it decreases its activity
with a decreased pH what happens inhibits PFK
what does citrate do to PFK inhibits PFK
inhibition of PFK does what to hexokinase inhibits hexokinase
what contains glucokinase liver and beta cells of pancreas
what are the outcomes of glucose 6 phosphate 1)burned in glycolysis 2)utilized to form glycogen 3)oxidized in the PPP to make NADPH
glucokinase in the liver has a ______ Km, is it inhibited by glucose 6 phosphate, what is it stimulated by high Km, not inhibited by glucose 6 phosphate, stimulated by insulin
hexokinase in muscle has a _____ Km, what is it inhibited by low Km, inhibited by glucose 6 phosphate
what is pyruavate kinase stimulated by fructose 1,6 BP
what does alanine inhibit pyruvate kinase
what reactants drive pyruvate kinase control fructose 1,6 bisphosphate
what products slow down pyruvate kinase control ATP or alanine
if there is no glucose is there glycolysis no glycolysis
if there is glucagon present is there glycolysis no glycolysis
pyruvate + NADH ----> lactate + NAD+
with lots of exercise there is lots of pyruvate which makes lots of lactate which lowers pH which inhibits PFK
little bit of lactate does what stimulates glycolysis because of NAD+
what is the enzyme in lactic acid production lactate dehydrogenase
what does lactic acid do inhibits PFK
what is NAD+ a reactant for glycolysis
are there 3 carbon molecules in the krebb's cycle no
citric acid cycle is known as krebs cycle TCA
what is the purpose of the citric acid cycle 1)make ATP 2)make reduced compounds 3)precursor molecules
the citric acid cycle has oxidation of energy for what substrates fat, carbs, protein
what is the enzyme for the preparation step in between glycolysis and krebs cylce pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
where is the preparation step for krebs cycle inside the matrix of the mitochondria
acetyl CoA ---> citrate what is the enzyme citrate synthase
citrate ---> isocitrate what is the enzyme aconitase
isocitrate ---> alpha-ketoglutarate what is the enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase
what are the reactants in isocitrate ---> alpha-ketoglutarate NAD+
what are the products in isocitrate ---> alpha-ketoglutarate CO2 & NADH
alpha-ketoglutarate ---> succinyl CoA what is the enzyme alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
what are the reactants in alpha-ketoglutarate ---> succinyl CoA NAD+
what are the products in alpha-ketoglutarate ---> succinyl CoA CO2 & NADH
succinyl CoA ---> succinate what is the enzyme succinyl CoA synthetase
succinate ---> fumarate what is the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase
what are the reactants in succinate ---> fumarate FAD
what are the products in succinate ---> fumarate FADH2
fumarate ---> malate what is the enzyme fumarase
what also happens in the fumarate ---> malate reaction hydorlysis
malate ---> oxaloacetate what is the enzyme malate dehydrogenase
what are the reactants in malate ---> oxaloacetate NAD+
what are the products in malate ---> oxaloacetate NADH
Created by: Jason Eller Jason Eller on 2011-11-08



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