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Vocab Ch. 10

The Nervous System

central nervous system(CNS) includes the brain and spinal cord. these structures are protected by the bones of the cranium and the spinal column
peripheral nervous system(PNS) includes the 12 pairs of cranial nerves extending from the brain and the 31 pairs of spinal nerves extending from the spinal cord.
autonomic nervous system(ANS) includes the peripheral nerves and ganglia on either side of the spinal cord
nerve is on or mor bundles of neuron cells(impulse carrying fibers) that connect the brain and the spinal cord with other parts of the body
tract is a bundle or group of nerve fibers located with in the brain or spinal cord
ascending tracts carry nerve impulses toward the brain
descending tracts cary nerve impulses away from the brain
ganglion is a knotlike mass or group of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system
plexus is a network of intersecting nerves and blood or lymphatic vessels
innervation is the supply of nerves to a body part
receptors are sites in the sensory organs(eyes, ears, skin, nose, and taste buds) that receive external stimulation
stimulus is anything that excites or activates a nerve and causes an impulse
impules is a wave of excitation transmitted through nerve fibers and neurons
reflex is an automatic, involuntary response to some change, either inside or outside the body
neuron is the basic cell of the nervous system
mnemonic is a device intended to aid memory
afferent neurons also known as SENSORY NEURONS, they emerge from the skin or sense organs and carry impulses toward the brain and spinal cord
connection neurons also known as ASSOCIATE NEURONS, they carry impulses form one neuron to another
efferent neurons also known as MOTOR NEURONS, they carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord and toward the muscels and glands
dendrites are rootlike structures that receive impulses and conduct them to the cell body
axon extends away from the cell body and conducts impulses away from the nerve cell
myelin a white fatty tissue covering the protects some, not all axons
ternminal end fibers are the branching fibers of the neuron that lead the nervous impulse away from the axon and toward the synapse
synapse is the space between two neurons or between a neuron and a receptor organ
neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger that transmits messages between nerve cell by making it possible for the nerve impulse to jump across the synapse from one neuron to another
acetylcholine released at some synapses in the spinal cord and at neuromuscular junctions; influences muscle diseas
dopamine released within the brain; is thought to cause some forms of psychosis and abnormal movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease
endorphins released within the spinal cord in the pain condition pathway; inhibit the conduction of pain impulses and act as a natural pain relievers
neuroglia also known as GLIAL CELLS, are the supportive and connective cells of the nervous system
glial means pertaining to glue
myelin sheath is the white protective covering over some nerve cells including parts of the spinal cord, white matter of the brain, and most peripheral nerves
white matter myelinated axons of nerves
myelinated means having a myelin sheath
gray matter portions of the nerves that do not have myelin sheath
meninges are three layers of connective tissue membrane that enclose the brain and spinal cord
dura mater is the thick, tough, outermost membrane of the meninges
epidural space is located above the dura mater and within the surrounding bone walls
subdural space is located below the dura membrane and above the arachnoid membrane
arachnoid membrane resembles a spider web, is the second layer surrounding the brain and spinal cord
cerebrum uppermost, least protected layer is responsible for the highest level of thought including judgment, memory, association, and critical thinking
thalamus located below the cerebrum, monitors sensory stimuli by suppressing some and magnifying others
hypothalamus below the thalamus, controls vital bodily functions
crebellum located in the lower back of the cranium below the cerebrum, coordinates muscular activity for smooth and steady movements
pons locted in the brainstem at the base of the brain, nerves cross over so that one side of the brain controls the opposite side of the body
medull oblongata mose protected part of the brain, controls the basic vital functions of life.
subarachnoid space locate below the arachnoid membrane and above the pia mater, contains cerebrospinal fluid
pia mater the third layer of the meninges, is located nearest to the brain and spinal cord
cerebrospinal fluid is a clear, colorless, watery fluid produced by special capillaries within the ventricles of the brain
cerebrum is the largest and uppermost portion of the brain
cerebral means pertaining th the cerebrum or brain
cerebral cortex made up of gray matter, is the outer layer of the cerebrum and is arranged in folds
frontal lobe controls motor functions
parietal lobe receives and nterprets nerve impulses from the sensory receptors
occipital lobe controls eyesight
temporal lobe controls the senses of hearing and smell
ventricles located within the middle region of the cerebrum contain CFS, is a small cavity of the brain and of the heart
cerebellum is the second largest part of the brain, receives incoming messages regarding movement within joints, muscle tone, and positions of the body
brainstem is the stalklike portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord
midbrain extends from the lower surface of the cerebrum to the pons, is a short narrow segment that provides conduction pathways to and from higher and lower centers
spinal cord is the pathway for impulses going to and from the brain
homeostasis is the process of maintaining the constant internal environment of the body
anesthesiologist is a physician who specializes in administering anesthetic agents before during surgery
anesthetist is a person trained in administering anesthesia but who is not necessarily a physician
neurologist specializes in diagnosting treating diseases and disorders of the nervous system
neurosurgeon is a physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system
psychiatrist holds a Medical Doctor(MD) degree and specializes in diagnosing and treating chemical dependencies, emotional problems, and mental illness
psychologist holds an advanced degree, other than a medical degree, and specializes in evaluating and treating emotional problems
cephalalgia also known as a HEADACHE, is pain in the head
migraine headache is a syndrome characterized by sudden, severe, sharp headache usually present on only one side
encephalocele also known as a CRANIOCELE, is a congenital gap in the skull with herniation of brain substance
hydrocephalus is an abnormally increased amount of CFS within the brain
meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges of the brain or spinal cord
alzheimer's disease(AD) is a group of disorders associated with degenerative changes in the brain structure that lead to characteristic symptoms including progresseve memory loss, impaired cognition, and personality changes
cognition describes the mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory
encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain
parkinson's disease(PD) is a chronic, slowly progressive, degenerative CNS disorder, characterized by fine muscle tremors, a masklike facial expression, and shuffling gait
tetanus also known as LOCKJAW, is an acute and potentially fatal bacterial infection of the CNS caused by the tetanus bacillus
amnesia is a disturbance in the memory marked by a total or partial inability to recall past experiences
concussion also known as CEREBRAL CONCUSSION, is a violent shaking up or jarring of the brain
cerebral contusion is the bruising of brain tissue as a result of a head injury
cranial hematoma is a collection of blood trapped in the tissue of the brain
concious also known as ALERT, means being awake, aware, and responding appropriatley
syncope also known as FAINTING, is the brief loss of consciousness caused by a brief lack of oxygen in the brain
lethargy is a lowered level of consciousness marked by listlessness, drowsiness, and apathy
apathy means indefference and reduced level of activity
stupor is a state of impaired consciousness marked by a lack of responsiveness to environmental stimuli
coma is a profound(deep) state of unconsciousness marked by the absence of spontaneous eye movements, no reponse to painful stimuli, and no vocalizaiton(speech)
comatose refers to a person who is in a coma
delirium is a potentilly reversible condition often associated with a high fever that comes on suddenly
delirious is confused, disoriented, and unable to think clearly
dementia is a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities including memory, thinking, judgement, and the ability to pay attention
brain tumor is an abnormal growth within the brain that may be either benign(not life threatening) or malignant(life threatening)
stroke also known as CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT, is damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted because a blood vessel supplying it either is blocked or has ruptured
transient ischemic attack is the temporary interruption in the blood supply to the brain, symptoms include weakness, dizziness, or loss of balance
ischemic stroke the flow of blood in the brain is blocked
cerebral thrombosis a thrombus (clot) blocks the artery
aphasia is the loss of the ability to speak, write, or comprehend the written or spoken word, often due to brain damage associated with a stroke
carotid endartectomy performed to prevent an ischemic stroke by opening a blocked artery before a stroke occurs
hemorrhagic stroke also known as BLEED, a blood vessel in the brain leakes or ruptures
insomnia the prolonged or abnormal inability to sleep
narcolepsy is a syndrome characterized by recurrent uncontrollable seizures of drowsiness and sleep
somnambulism also known as NOCTAMBULISM/SLEEPWALKING, is the condition of walking without awakening
somnolence is a condition of unnatural sleepiness or semiconsciousness approaching coma
multiple sclerosis is a progressive autoimmune disorder characterized by scattered patches of demyelination of nerve fibers of the brain and the spinal cord
polomyelitis is also known as POLIO, is a viral infection of the gray matter of the spinal cord that may result in paralysis
postpolio syndrome is the recurrence later in life of some polio symptoms in individuals who have had poliomyelitis and have recovered from it
radiculitis also known as PINCHED NERVE, in an inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also known as LOU GERIG'S DISEASE, is a degenerative disease of the motor neurons in which patients become progressively weaker until they are completely paralyzed
bells palsy is paralysis of the facial(seventh cranial) nerve that causes drooping only on the affected side of the face
guillain-barre syndrome(GBS) also known as ACUTE ASCENDING POLYNEURITIS, is characterized by rapidly worsening muscle weakness that may lead to temporary paralysis
peripheral neuropathy also known as PERIPHERAL NEURITIS, is a painful condition of the nerves of the hands and feet due to peripheral nerve damage that may be caused by desease such as diabetes, alcoholism, autoimmune diseases, and exposure ot toxic substances
tic douloureux also known as TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA, is inflammation of the trigeminal(fifth cranial) nerve
sciatica is inflammation of the sciatic nerve that results in pain along the course of the nerve through the thigh or leg
causalgia is an intense burning pain after an injury to a sensory nerve
hyperesthesia means a condition of excessive sensitivity to stimuli
paresthesia is an abnormal sensation, such as burning, tingling, or numbness, for no apparent reason
cerebral palsy is a condition characterized by poor muscle control, spasticity, and other neurologic dificiencies caused by an injury to the part of the brain that controls muscle movements
convulsion/seizure used interchangeably to describe a sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of a group of muscles caused by a disturbance in brain function
generalized seizure also known as a GENERALIZED TONIC-CLONIC SEIZURE, is characterized by a loss of consciousness with tonic convulsions followed by clonic convulsions
tonic convulsion is a state of continuous muscular contraciton that results in rigidity and violent spasms
clonic convulsion is a state marked by the alternate contraciton and relaxation of muscles, resulting in jerking movements of the face, trunk, or extremities
partial seizure also known as LOCALIZED SEIZURE, begins with specific motor, sensory, or psychomotor phenomena without loss of consciousness
epilepsy is a group of neurologic disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures
grand mal epilepsy which is the more severe form, is characterized by generalized tonic-clonic seizures
petit mal epilepsy also known as ABSENCE EPILEPSY, is the milder from in which there is sudden, temporary loss of consciousness, lasting only a few seconds
epileptic aura is a manifestation, such as a particular smell or light, which may be experienced just before a seizure
mental retardation is significantly below average general intellectual functioning that is accompanied by a significant limitation in adaptive functioning
autistic disorder also known as AUTISM, is a disorder in which a young child cannot develop normal social relationships, behaves in compulsive and ritualistic ways, and frequently has poor communication skills
attention deficit disorder(ADD) is a short attention span and impulsiveness that is inappropriate for the childs developmental age
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) is a pattern of inattention and hyperactivity that is inappropriate for the childs developmental age
dyslexia also known as READING DISORDER, is a learning disability characterized by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individuals chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education
addiction is the com;ulsive and overwhelming involvement with a specific activity despite the fact that it causes significant health hazards plus recurrent legal and social problems
alcoholism is chronic alcohol dependence or abuse with specific signs and symptoms of withdrawal.
withdrawal is a psychological or physical syndrome (or both) caused by the abrupt cessation (stopping) of the use of a drug in a habituated individual
delirium tremens is a form of acute organic brain syndrome due to alcohol withdrawal and is characterized by sweating, tremor, restlessness, anxiety, mental confusion, and hallucinations
psychotic is characterized by the derangement of personality, loss of contact with reality, and deterioration of normal social functioning
schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech that is often incoherent, and disruptive or catatonic behavior
delusion is a false personal belief that is maintained despite obvious proof or evidence to the contrary
hallucination is a sense perception (sight, touch, sound, smell, or taste) that has no basis in external stimulation
catatonic behavior is marked by a lack of reponsiveness, stupor, and a tendency to remain in a fixed posture
manic episode is a distinct period during which there is an abnormally, and persistently elevated, expansive and irritable mood
major depressive episode is a prolonged period during which there is either a depressed mood or the loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities
bipolar disorder also known as MANIC DEPRESSIVE EPISODE, is a clinical course characterized by the occurence of manic episodes alternating with depressive episodes
panic disorders are characterized by the sudden, unanticipated recurrence of a group of symptoms known as a panic attack
panic attack includes intense feelings of apprehension, fearfulness, terror, and impending doom
anxiety state is a feeling of apprehension, tension, or uneasiness that stems from the anticipation of danger, the source of which is largely unknown or unrecognized
obsessive-compulsive disorder is a pattern of specific behaviors such as repeated hand washing
posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD) is the development of characteristic symptoms after a psychologically traumatic event such as witnessing a shooting, surviving a natural disaster, or being held as a hostage
phobia is a persistent irrational fear of a specific thing or situation
acrophobia is an excessive fear of being in high places
agoraphobia is an overwhelming and irrational fear of leaving the familiar setting of home or venturing into the open
claustrophobia is an abnormal fear of being in narrow or enclosed spaces
conversion disorder such as paralysis of an arm or disturbance of vision, is characterized by a change in function that suggests a physical disorder but has no physical cause
hypochondriasis is characterized by a preoccupation with fears of having, or the idea that one does have, a serious disease based on misinterpretation of one or more bodily signs or symptoms
kleptomania is a disorder characterized by a recurrent failure to resist impulses to steal objects not for immediate use or their monetary value
pyromania is a disorder characterized by a recurrent failure to resist impulses to set fires
personality disorder is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individuals culture
antisocial personality disorder is a pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others
narcissistic personlatity disorder is a pattern of an exaggerated need for admiration and complete lack of empathy
empathy is the ability to understand another persons mental and emotional state without becoming personally involved
malingering is characterized by the intentional creation of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms, motivated by external incentives such as avoiding work
munchausen syndrome is a condition in which the patient repeatedly makes up clincally convincing simulations of disease for the purpose of gaining medical attention
munchausen syndrome by proxy is a form of child abuse
computed tomography also known as CT SCAN/MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING(MRI) are important diagnostic tools of the nervous system because they can image the soft tissue structures of the brain and spinal cord
echoencephalography is the use of ultrasound imaging to diagnose a shift in the midline structures of the brain
electroencephalography is the process of recording the electrical activity of the brain through the use of electrodes attached to the scalp
encephalography is a radiographic study demonstrating the intracranial fluid containing spaces of the brain
myelography is a radiographic study of the spinal cord after the injection of a ontrast medium
myelogram the resulting record
level of consciousness(LOC) is an important part of a neurologic evaluation
tranquilizers also known as ANTIANXIETY DRUGS, suppress anxiety and relax muscles
antidepressant prevents or relieves depression
psychotropic drugs are capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior and are used in the treatment of mental illness
transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation(TENS) is a mehtod of pain control by the application of electronic impulses to the nerve endings through the skin
analgesic is a drug the relieves pain without affection consciousness
nonnarcotic analgesics such as aspirin are used for mild to moderate pain
narcotic analgesics such as morphine, demerol, and codeine are used to relieve severe pain
sedative depresses the CNS to produce calm and diminished responsiveness without producing sleep
sedation is the effect produced by a sedative
hypnotic depress the CNS and usually produces sleep
barbiturate is a class of drugs whose major action is a calm in or depressed effect on the CNS
amobarbital is a barbiturate used as a sedative and hypnotic
phenobarbital is a barbiturate used a s a sedative and as an anticonvulsant
anticonvulsant prevents seizures and convulsions
anesthesia is the absence of normal sensation, especially sensitivity to pain
anesthetic is the medication used to induce anesthesia
topical anesthesia numbs only the tissue surface and is applied as a liquid, ointment, or spray
local anesthesia is the loss of sensation in a limited area and is produced by injection an anesthetic solution near the area
regional anesthesia the temporary interruption of nerve conduction, is produced by injection an anesthetic solution near the nerves to be blocked
epidural anesthesia is regional anesthesia produced by injection a local anesthetic into the epidural space of the lumbar or sacral regino of the spine
spinal anesthesia is produced by injection an anesthetic into the subarachnoid space that is located below the arachnoid membrane and above the pia mater that surrounds the spinal cord
general anesthesia involves the total loss of body sensation and consciousness as induced by various anesthetic agents, given primarily by inhalation or intravenous injection
electroshock therapy also known as ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY, is a controlled convulsion produced by the passage of an eletric current through the brain
lobectomy is surgical removal of a portion of the brain to treat brain cancer or seizure disorders that cannot be controlled with medication
thalamotomy is a surgical incision into the thalamus
Created by: caprinag1994