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Respiratory System 3

diseases of the respiratory system

Infections of the sinuses, nose, or pharynx are called? URI (upper respiratory infection or URD (upper respiratory disease).
Upper respiratory infections (URI) or upper respiratory diseases (URD) include? 1. Coryza (common cold).
Upper respiratory infections (URI) or upper respiratory diseases (URD) include? 2. Sinusitis (inflammation of the sinuses.
Upper respiratory infections (URI) or upper respiratory diseases (URD) include? 3. Hay fever.
Upper respiratory infections (URI) or upper respiratory diseases (URD) include? 4. Tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils, pharyngitis (inflammation of the pharynx (throat), and laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx {vocal cords}
Upper respiratory infections (URI) or upper respiratory diseases (URD) include? 5. Influenza.
Coryza is AKA the common cold
Coryza is caused by more than 200 different strains of? viruses that are highly contagious. (communicable).
Signs and symptoms of coryza include? 1. Nasal congestion. 2. Copious rhinorrhea (large amount of nasal discharge. 3. Sneezing. 4. Pyrexia (fever) 5. Pharyngitis (inflammation of the pharynx). 6. Cough.
Recovering from coryza does not provide a lasting? immunity.
Viscous (thick) yellow or green mucus secretion is a sign of a secondary bacterial infection such as? staph {staphylococci} strept {strepococci} or pneumococci.
Tx (treatment) for coryza includes? 1. Antipyretics (tylenol) 2. Decongestants (sudafed). 3. Antitussives (Benylin DM). 4. Increased fluid intake. 5. Rest. 6. Antibiotics (amoxicillin). if there are signs and symptoms of a secondary bacterial infection.
Sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinuses commonly caused by? viruses, bacteria, and allergens.
Signs and symptoms of sinusitis include? 1. Facial pain/pressure. 2. Cephalalgia (headache)
Tx (treatment) of sinusitis includes? 1. Antihistamines (Claritin). 2. Decongestants (Afrin). 3. Steam vaporizer.
Common causes of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) include? 1. Deviated nasal septum (wall). 2. Nasal polyps. 3. Lingual (tongue) and/or soft palate prolapse (drooping or sagging).
OSA (obstructive sleep apnea) causes? heavy, long, and loud snoring and snorting.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more common in? overweight males over age 40.
Untreated (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of? 1. HTN (hypertension)
Untreated (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of? 2. CVA (cerebral vascular accident).
Untreated (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of? 3. DM (diabetes mellitus)
Untreated (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of? 4. MI (myocardial infarction.
Untreated (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of? 5. CHF (congestive heart failure).
Untreated (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of? 6. Cardiac arrythmias (dysrythmias).
Untreated (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of? 7. MDD (major depressive disorder).
Tx (treatment) of (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea includes? 1. C-PAP (continuous positive airway pressure) device. 2. Surgical repair of obstructive structure.
Hay fever (SAR)Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis is usually caused by allergies to? pollens, ragweed, and grasses.
Signs and symptoms of hay fever (SAR) seasonal allergic rhinitis include? 1. Nasal congestion and sneezing. 2. Rhinorrhea (nasal discharge). 3. Cephalalgia (headache) 4. Erythematous (red), pruritic (itching), and watery eyes. 5. Tinnitus (ringing in the ears). 6. Postnasal drip.
Tx (treatment) SAR (seasonal allergic rhinitis) includes? 1. Antihistamines (Zrytec). 2. Decongestants (Drixoral). 3. Allergy desensitization ("allergy shots").
Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils commonly caused by a? virus.
Signs and symptoms of tonsillitis include? 1. Enlarged and erythematous (red) tonsils. 2. Dysphagia (difficulty or painful swallowing) 3. Pyrexia (fever). 4. Pustules (puss filled papules) can develop on the tonsils.
Tonsillitis and cervical lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes) without rhinorrhea (nasal discharge) sneezing, or coughing indicates a? bacterial infection (possibly strep).
Treatment (Tx) for tonsillitis includes? 1. Gargling with salt water. 2. Antipyretics (tylenol). 3. Antibiotics (penicillin) for strep.
Treatment (Tx) for chronic tonsillitis includes? T + A (tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy.
Influenza (flu) is most commonly caused by the? type A and B viruses.
The flu season usually runs from? November through March.
Signs and symptoms of influenza include? 1. Chills. 2. Pyrexia (fever). 3. Cough 4. Pharyngitis (inflammation of the pharynx {throat}. 5. Sneezing and rhinorrhea (nasal discharge).
Signs and symptoms of influenza continued include? 6. Thoracodynia (chest pain). 7. Myalgias (muscle pain). 8. Cephalalgia (headache). 9. Malaise (feeling of unwell). 10. Vomiting and/or diarrhea (loose watery stool).
About 24 to 72 hours after contracting influenza you will become? contagious even though you may be asymptomatic (no symptoms).
Methods to reduce the risk of contracting influenza include? 1. Frequent proper hand washing. 2. Beware of fomites (objects contaminated with pathogens). 3. Refrain from touching your eyes, nose, and mouth. 4. Proper diet and regular exercise. 5. Annual immunization (inoculation, or vaccination.
Full immunization can take up to? 2 weeks
Influenza can range in severity from? mild to life threatening.
Influenza is particularly serious in the? 1. very young 2. elderly 3. chronically ill.
A complication associated with influenza is? pneumonia.
Treatment(Tx) of influenza includes? 1. Bed rest. 2. Increase fluid intake. 3. Antipyretics (tylenol, Motrin). 4. Decongestants (sudafed). 5. Antihistamines (Benadryl) 6. Antivirals (Tamiflu or Relenza).
Treatment(Tx) of influenza include? 7. Prophylactic (preventive) antibiotic therapy for immunocompromised(weakened immune system) patients.
Influenza kills an average of _______ Americans each year? 36,000.
Lower respiratory diseases include? 1. Chronic bronchitis. 2. Asthma. 3. Emphysema. 4. CF (cystic fibrosis) 5. Pneumoconiosis 6. Pneumonia. 7. Pleurisy 8. TB (tuberculosis) 9. Bronchogenic carcinoma
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) consists of? 1. Chronic bronchitis. 2. Asthma. 3. Emphysema. 4. CF (cystic fibrosis) 5. Pneumoconiosis.
Bronchitis is? inflammation of the bronchi?
Bronchitis can be? acute (sudden) and or chronic (reoccurring or persistant)
Bronchitis is commonly caused by respiratory irritants such as? 1. Air pollution (smoke, allergens). 2. Viruses. 3. Bacteria.
Signs and symptoms of bronchitis include? 1. Thoracodynia (chest pain) 2. Dyspnea (difficulty breathing) 3. Productive cough. 4. Pyrexia (fever). 5. Chills.
Bronchitis often follows an? URI (upper respiratory infection).
Bronchitis is most serious in young children, the chronically ill, and the elderly because of the complications of? pneumonia.
Treatment(Tx)of bronchitis includes? 1. removal of irritants (smoking) 2. antibiotics for bacterial infections. 3. Nebulizers (vaporizers).
Asthma is characterized by? constriction of the walls of the bronchi (main airway branches) and bronchioles(small bronchi)causing stenosis (narrowing)and spasms (involuntary muscle contractions), breathing,especially exhaling is difficult.
The bronchial spasms (involuntary muscle contractions) and stenosis (narrowing)cause a characteristic BS (breath sounds) called? rhonchi (wheezing).
Exacerbation(to make worse) of asthma has been linked to? 1. respiratory infections. 2. sudden weather changes 3. pyschogenic factors (anxiety, poorly controlled stress). 4. vigorous exercise.
Hypersensitivity, to allergens such as? a. dust. b. molds. c. pollen. d. animal dander (dried skin and hair). e. certain fabrics. f. cosmetics. g. cigarette smoke h. aerosol sprays i. cologne. j. various foods. k. NSAIDs. l. caffeine.
Asthma is typically triggered by? allergies.
There is no cure for asthma but attacks may become less severe with? age.
Asthma incidence has also been associated with? ultra clean childhood environment,sedentary lifestyle, and obesity
The risk of asthma decreases if a child is? breastfed.
Treatment (Tx) for asthma includes? 1. Avoidance of allergens. 2. Allergy desensitization. 3. Corticosteroids (SAIDs). 4. Bronchodilators (albuterol). 5. Asmanex. 6. Symbicort. 7. Singulair.
Asthma can be monitored by measuring the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled with a? PFM (peak flow meter).
The most severe form of asthma is? status asthmaticus.
Status asthmaticus may end in? respiratory failure or death if not treated immediately.
A common bronchodilator used to treat status asthmaticus is? epinephrine (Adrenalin).
Emphysema is characterized by a? progressive irreversible loss of elasticity of the alveoli (microscopic airsacs that respirate.
Emphysema is commonly associated with? heavy cigarette smoking.
Signs and symptoms of emphysema include? 1. use of accessory muscles for normal ventilation (breathing). 2. Dyspnea (difficult ventilation. 3. DOE (dyspnea on excursion). 4. easily fatigued. 5. rales (crackling sounds heard during auscultation.
Signs and symptoms of emphysema continued include? 6. Tachypnea (fast breathing). 7. Cyanosis (blue discoloration). 8 WT (weight) loss. 9. "Barrel Chest."
Emphysema causes the heart overwork causing? cardiomegaly (enlarged heart), and CHF (congestive heart failure).
Diagnosis (Dx) of emphysema is confirmed with? patient hx(history), chest CT (computerized tomography), ABGs (arterial blood gases), and spirometry (the process of measuring ventilation.
Treatment (Tx) for emphysema includes? 1. removal of respiratory irritants. 2. bronchodilator medications (aminophylline) 3. mucolytics (mucomyst) 4. Spiriva. 5. 02(oxygen) therapy. 6. NPPV (non-invasive positive pressure ventilation.
A complication of emphysema is trapped air in the pleural cavities cause a? pneumothorax.
the increased air in the pleural cavities puts pressure on the lungs and can cause a collapse called? atelectasis.
An atelectasis (collapsed lung) can also be caused by? 1. Hemothorax (blood in the chest. 2. Pyothorax (pus in the chest). 3. Hydro-thorax (fluid in the lung). 4. Spontaneous (without cause).
Signs and symptoms of atelectasis (collapsed lung) include? 1. Acute thoracodynia (sudden chest pain). 2. Dyspnea (difficulty breathing). 3. Tachypnea (fast breathing).
Treatment (Tx) of atelectasis (collapsed lung) includes? insertion of a chest tube (pleurocentesis).
A chest tube will? aspirate (evacute) the air in the pleural cavity and let the affected lung re-inflate.
A common chest tube suction apparatus is called? Pleur-evac.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary disease affecting the lungs and pancreas of? young children and young adults.
The most serious manifestation of CF (cystic fibrosis) is? copious (large) amounts of viscous (thick) mucus secretions in the lungs causing chronic airway obstructions.
Signs and symptoms CF (cystic fibrosis) includes? 1. Dyspnea (difficulty breathing). 2. Rhonchi (wheezing). 3. Persistent cough. 4. Viscous (thick) sputum (mucus expectorated from the lungs.
Complications of CF (cystic fibrosis) include? chronic respiratory infections and atelectasis (collapsed lung).
Treatment (Tx) of CF includes? 1. Antibiotics for bacterial infections. 2. Mucolytics (mucomyst). 3. Diligent "pulmonary toilet" techniques.
"Pulmonary toilet" refers to? a. Deep breathing and forceful coughing. b. CPT (chest physiotherapy). c. Postural drainage (head is lower than feet).
Chest physiotherapy (CPT) is AKA? percussion (clapping) and vibration (shaking).
CF (cystic fibrosis) also causes obstruction of pancreatic ducts that prevents secretion of pancreatic enzymes causing? malnutrition.
this deficiency requires? pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy.
Pneumonia? An acute inflammation of a lung(s) with an accumulation of inflammatory exudate (edema).
Pneumonia can be caused by a variety of? microorganisms.
The inflammatory exudate (edema) can be referred to as? consolidation.
Signs and symptoms of pneumonia include? 1. Thoracodynia (chest pain). 2. Pyrexia (fever) and chills. 3. Productive cough 4. Dyspnea (difficulty breathing). 5. Fatigue.
The different types of pneumonia include? 1. Lobar pneumonia (inflammation of a section).
Treatment (Tx) of lobar pneumonia includes? antibiotics and "pulmonary toilet."
2. Broncho-pneumonia ? diffuse inflammation.
Treatment (Tx) of broncho-pneumonia includes? antibiotics and "pulmonary toilet."
3. Primary atypical pneumonia? walking pneumonia
This pneumonia may not require? medical attention.
Secondary pneumonia develops as a secondary disorder from other diseases that? weaken the immune system.
The most dangerous secondary pneumonia is a complication of? influenza.
Diagnosis (Dx) of pneumonia is confirmed with a? CXR (chest x-ray) and sputum C+S (culture and sensitivity).
Pneumonia is more common with? AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) DM (diabetes mellitus), cancer, cirrhosis, alcoholics, elderly, children, and postoperative patients.
The return of the lung(s) to a normal condition is called? resolution.
Pleurisy is an? inflammation of the pleural membranes.
Pleurisy can be a complications of? any lung disease.
The primary symptom of pleurisy is a? sharp stabbing thoracodynia (chest pain) on inspiration and when coughing.
Treatment (Tx) of pleurisy includes? 1. Antibiotics. 2. Analgesics (Vicodin) 3. Bed rest.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial lung infection characterized by? necrosis of lung tissue.
Untreated tuberculosis (TB) can spread to the? kidneys, brain, or bone.
TB (tuberculosis) is transmitted by? respiratory droplets.
Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis (TB) include? 1. SOB (shortness of breath.) 2. Nocturnal diphoresis (night sweats). 3. WT (weight) loss. 4. Fatigue 5. Productive cough 6. Thoracodynia (chest pain). 7. Hemoptysis (expectorating blood) in advanced stage.
In the early stages TB (tuberculosis) can be? asymptomatic.
Exposure to tuberculosis (TB)can be detected by an intradermal skin test called a? PPD or tine or Mantoux.
The diagnosis (Dx) of tuberculosis (TB) is verified by? CXR (chest x-ray) and sputum CX (culture).
The chest X-ray (CXR) will show the standard TB (tuberculosis) lesion called a? tubercle.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a very serious concern for those who are immuncompromised (weakened immune system such as? AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) patients, homeless, and infected immigrants.
Treatment (Tx) for tuberculosis (TB) includes? antituberculine antibiotics (INH or rifampin) Q.D. (everyday for 4-9 months.
MDRTB stands for? multidrug resistant tuberculosis.
Bronchogenic Carcinoma (BC) arises in the bronchial tree and is commonly associated with? cigarette smoking.
BC occurs more often in? men.
BC (Bronchogenic carcinoma) is the? most common type of lung cancer.
Signs and symptoms of BC (bronchogenic carcinoma) include? 1. Persistent cough often called a "smokers cough" or "smoker's hack". 2. Dyspnea (difficulty breathing). 3. Hemoptysis (expectorating blood). 4. Anorexia (loss of appetite) 5. WT (weight) loss. 6. General weakness
Diagnosis (Dx) for bronchogenic carcinoma (BC) is verified with? bronchoscopy (using a lighted instrument to view) and biopsy (Bx) {washing}
Treatment (Tx) for bronchogenic carcinoma (BC) includes? 1. Surgery (lobectomy, pneumoectomy . 2. Radiation. 3. Chemotherapy (antineoplastics)
The prognosis (Px) for bronchogenic carcinoma (BC) is? poor.
The lungs are also common secondary sites for metastases from other systems such as? breast, GI tract, female reproductive system, and kidneys.
Lung cancer kills ________ Americans each year? 93,000
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is AKA? "crib death"
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the major cause of death between ages? 1 month and 1 year.
SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) is? idiopathic (unknown diseases).
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) occurs in all? social, economic, racial, and ethnic groups.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) occurs more often in? males.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) risk increases in? 1. Premature babies. 2. Low birth weight (WT) babies. 3. Multiple deliveries (twins, triplets, etc). 4. Infants born to teenagers. 5. smoking (and second hand smoke during pregnancy. 6. Poor prenatal care.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) risk increases in? 7. STDS (sexually transmitted disease during pregnancy. 8. UTIs (urinary tract infections) during pregnancy.
SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) may be related to decreased? serotonin levels in the brain.
The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) can be reduced by 40% if infants are put down lying on their? backs instead of their abdomen.
The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) can be reduced by 72% when infants slept in a room where a? fan was on (Parade).
High risk neonates are commonly prescribed? apnea (no breathing) monitors.
Created by: Penny S