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BIO201-Ch5-Integ-sys

BIO201 - Ch 5 - Integumentary System - Marieb/Hoehn - Rio Salado

QuestionAnswer
Skin is composed of 2 regions. Epidermis & dermis.
The __ is composed of epithelial cells & is outermost shield of body. Epidermis.
The __ makes up the bulk of skin. Dermis.
The dermis is made up of __. Fibrous connective tissue.
Vascularized layer of skin. Dermis layer
How do nutrients reach the epidermis? Diffusing through tissue fluid from blood vessels in dermis.
Subcutaneous tissue just deep to skin. Hypodermis layer.
Is not really part of skin but shares in protective functions. Hypodermis
Another name for the hypodermis is __. Superficial fascia
The superficial fascia (hypodermis) is __. Superficial to connective tissue wrapping (fascia) of skeletal muscles.
They hypodermis layer contains __ tissue. Adipose tissue.
The role of the hypodermis is? Anchors skin to muscles, but is loose enough to slide.
The fatty composition of the hypodermis acts as __ & __. Shock absorber & insulator.
Which layer thickens when we gain weight? Hypodermis because of adipose tissue there.
The epidermis layer is made of __. Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
The epidermis has __ cell types and __ to __ distinct layers. 4 cell types & 4-5 layers.
Most epidermal cells are __. Keratinocytes.
Keratin Helps give epidermis its protective properties.
Keratinocytes Produce keratin & are tightly connected.
4 Types of cells in epidermis are __. Keratinocytes, melanocytes, Merkel, & Langerhans' Cells.
Keratinocytes arise in the deepest epidermis called __. Stratum basale.
Keratinocytes undergo almost continuous __. Mitosis
We have a new epideris every __ days. 25-45 days.
Melanocytes Spider-shaped epithelial cells - make melanin.
Melanocytes are found __. In deepest layer of epidermis.
Melanin accumulates in __. Melanosomes.
Melanosomes Membrane-bound granules that store melanin.
Melanin is taken up by __. Keratinocytes
Langerhans' cells Star-shaped phagocytes - help in immune sys - form network.
Merkel cells Associated w/merkel disk & nerve endings.
Merkel disk Sensory receptor for touch.
Langerhans' cells - aka __. Epidermal dendric cells.
Thick skin has __ layers. 5
Which layer is absent in "thin" skin? Stratum Lucidum
Name the 5 skin layers acronym. "Children Love Grammy's Special Brownies!"
Skin layers from top to bottom are __? Corneum, Lucidum, Granulosum, Spinosum, Basale.
Which skin layer is known as the "horny layer"? Stratum Corneum
Stratum Corneum 3/4 of epidermal thickness - Keratin - Glycolipids waterproof the layer.
Which skin layer is waterproofed by glycolipids? Stratum Corneum.
Stratum Lucidum "Clear Layer" - flat dead keratinocytes - parallel arrays of keratin filaments.
Which layer of epidermis is called the "clear layer"? Stratum Lucidum because of the the clear, flat, dead, keratinocytes.
What granules are found in the Granulosum layer? Keratohyaline & lamellated granules.
Above which layer are cells unable to receive nutrition? Stratum Granulosum
Where will you find clear dead keratinocytes? In the Stratum Lucidum.
Stratum Spinosum "Prickly Layer" - web-like intermediate filaments abundant in this level.
Langerhans' cells are abundant in the __ layer. The Stratum Spinosum.
Stratum Basale "Basal layers" - Deepest - attached to dermis - "stratum germinativum.
Which epidermal layer has rapid division of keratinocytes? Stratum Basale/Stratum germinativum.
Keratohyaline Granules Help form keratin in upper layers.
Lamellated Granules "Plated" - contain waterproofing glycolipid.
Above which layer are epidermal cells not nurished? Granulosum Layer
Which cells are joined by desmosomes? Keratinocytes
Which layer has miotic stem cells? Basale Layer
Which skin region is called our "hide"? Dermis.
Dermis Layer Lower skin region - flexible connective tissue - innervated & vascularized.
Name the two dermis layers. Papillary (superficial) & reticular (deeper) layer.
Papillary Layer Thin areolar conn. tissue - "peglike" projections.
Papill "Nipple".
Dermal Papillae contain __. Capillary loops, nerve endings, & messner's corpuscles.
Dermal Ridges Mounds of dermal tissue on which papillae lie.
Epidermal Ridges Lie atop dermal ridges & enhance gripping ability.
Where do you find epidermal ridges? Fingers & feet.
Fingerprints are caused by? Films of sweat secreted along epidermal ridges.
Reticular Layer 80% of dermis - deep - dense irregular conn. tiss. - Nurished by cutaneous plexus.
Cleavage/Tension Lines Less dense regions in dermis - lines that run longitudinally in skin.
Flexure Lines Dermal folds near or at joints.
Striae Stretch marks - "Streaks"
3 Pigments that give skin its color are? Melanin, carotene, & hemoglobin.
Melanin Polymer of tyrosine amino acids.
Ultraviolet radiation destroys __ stores. Folate - needed for DNA synthesis.
Carotene Yellow/orange pigment - accumulates in corneum.
Cyanosis Turning blue from lack of oxygen.
Erythema indicates? "Turning red" - fever, hypertension, inflammation or allergy.
Pallor/blanching indicates? Fear, anemia, low blood pressure.
Bronzing indicates? Hypofunction of adrenal cortex.
Hematomoas Clotted blood masses.
What must form before a skin appendage can grow? Epithelial bud
What stimulates epithelial bud growth? Reduced production of cadherin - breaks cell connections.
Sudoriferous Gland Sweat gland - 3 million.
2 kinds of sweat glands are? Eccrine & apocrine
Eccrine Sweat Glands "Merocrine" - Simple, coiled, tubular gland - opens to a pore.
Sweat is? Hypotonic filtrate of blood released by exocytosis. 99% h2O.
Dermicidin Microbe-killing peptide in sweat.
pH of sweat? Acidic - 4-5
Sweating is regulated by? Sympathetic Nervous System
Apocrine Sweat Glands Misnomer - actually secretes by exocytosis - In axillary & genital - body odor.
What glands cause body odor? Apocrine Sweat Glands
Ceruminous Glands Earwax - Cerumen secretions.
Sebuceous Gland Oil gland - simple, branched, alveolar, holcrine.
The secretion of sebum is stimulated by __. Sex Hormones - androgens
Seborrhea "Cradel Cap"
Pili Hair - hard keratin - keratinized
Red hair is colored by __. Iron-containing pigment trichosiderin.
Arrector Pili Smooth muscle cells around hair follicle - makes goose bumps
2 types of hair are? Vellus & terminal hair
Vellus Hair Fine - body hair
Terminal Hair Coarser, longer hair - pubic, axillary - response to sex hormones.
Alopecia Baldness
Hirsutism Excessive hormones
Nail Matrix Responsible for nail growth.
Skin's 3 types of barriers. Chemical, physical & melanin
Acid mantle Low pH of skin that retards bacterial multiplication.
Human defensin Natural antibiotics secreted by skin - punches holes in bacteria.
Cathelicidins Protective peptide secreted by wounded skin - good against Strep-A
Physical/Mechanical Barriers Provided by continuity of skin, harness of keratinized cells, & glycolipids.
Biological Barriers Langerhans' cells in epidermis, macrophages in dermis, & DNA.
How does DNA protect the body? Electrons in DNA absorb UV radiation & turn it into heat.
Basal Cell Carcinoma Most common skin cancer - 99% curable w/surgery.
Cutaneous Sensory Receptors Exteroceptors - Meissner's corpuscle, Merkel discs, & Pacinian.
Metaboloic Functions of Skin Synthesizes Vit. D, disarm cancer chemicals, activate steroid hormones.
Fas Protein that causes cell suicide.
"ABCD" for Melanoma Recognition "A"ssymetry, "B"order irregularity, "C"olor, "D"iameter.
"Rule of 9's" Divides body into 11 areas - each 9% total plus 1% genital.
Partial-Thickness Burns 1st & 2nd Degree Burns
Full-Thickness Burns 3rd Degree Burns - Entire skin layers burned.
Eschar Burned Skin.
Burns are considered critical when? 1. Over 25% are 2nd degree, 2) Over 10% are 3rd degree & 3) Facial, hands/feet have 3rd degree.
Epidermis, dermis & hypodermis derrived from? Mesoderm
Lanugo Coat Furry coat on fetus.
Vernix Caseosa Cheesy-like coating on newborn.
Matrix Metalloproteinases Enzymes that degrade collagen.
Decubitus Ulcer Localized ulceration of skin due to lack of blood supply.
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) Hereditary disorders of keratin, collagen, or basement membrane - lack of cohesion between skin & mucosa. "Touch-me-nots".
Impetigo Raised lesions around mouth & nose - staph infection.
Mongolian Spot Blue-black spot in sacral region.
Porphyria Alergic to sun - Lesions form - gums degerate & teeth prominent - vampire tales?
Sensations of touch & pressure picked up in which layer? Dermis
Skin surface markings that reflect tight dermal attachments are? Flexure Lines
The most dangerous skin cancer affects __ cells. Melanocytes
The outtermost sheath of hair follicles are __. Connective Root Sheath
The __ sweat glands are fairly unimportant in thermoregulation. Apocrine
The destruction of the matrix of a hair bulb would result in its ability to __. Grow hair
__ Must be activiated in the skin to enhance calcium metabolism. Vitamin D
Bedsores are called __. Decubitus ulcers
Addison Disease Bronzing of skin - adrenal cortex is hypoactive.
Portion of hair w/in follicle is __. Root
Epithelial Membrane Simple organ - epithelial sheet bound to connective tissue proper.
__ membranes line closed ventral cavity of body. Serous membranes
3 examples of serous membranes. Peritoneums, pericardia & plurae
Mucus membranes are comprised of __. Epithelial cells resting on a layer of loose connective tissue (lamina propria).
__ line all cavities that open to the body exterior. Mucosa
In most cases, mucosa are "__" membranes. "Wet"
Serous membranes are also __ membranes. Epithelial
In serous membranes the __ layer lines a body cavity. Parietal layer
In serous membranes __ layer covers the outside of the organs in a cavity. Visceral
__ membranes line body cavities that are closed to the exterior. Serous
Which serous membranes open to the exterior? Female peritoneal cavity & dorsal body cavity
__ membranes line interior of blood vessels & the heart. Serous
The entire wall of capillaries are composed of __. Serosa
__ membranes are composed entirely of connective tissue. Synovial
Created by: Ladystorm on 2007-04-08



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