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Leach Soc Chapter 9

Leach Sociology Terms Chapter 9

social stratification ranking of individuals or categories of people on the basis of unequal access to scarce resources and social rewards
social inequality unequal sharing of social rewards and resources
caste system system in which scarce resources and rewards are disributed on the basis of ascribed statuses
exogamy marriage outside of one's own social category
endogamy marriage within ones own social category
class system system in which scarce resources and rewards are determined on the bases of achieved statuses
bourgeoisie owners of the means of production in a capitalist society
proletariat workers in a capitalist society who sell their labor in exchange for wages
social class grouping of people with similar levels of wealth, power, and prestige
wealth most obvious dimension of social stratification because it is made up of the value of everything the person owns and money earned through salaries and wages
power ability to control the behavior of others, with or without their consent
prestige respect, honor, recognition, or courtesy an individual receives from other members of society
socioeconomic status rating that combines social factors such as level of education, occupational prestige, and place of residence with the economic factor of income in order to determine an indiviual's relative position in the stratification system
reputational method technique used to rank individuals according to social class. This is done by asking individuals in the community to rank other community members based on what they know of their characters and life-styles
subjective method technique used to rank individuals according to social class in which the indiviuals themselves are asked to determine their own social rank
objective method technique used to rank individuals according to social class in which sociologists define social class in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education
social mobility movement between or within social classes or strata
horizontal mobility type of social mobility in which the individual moves from one position in a social-class level to another position in that same social-class level
vertical mobility movement between social classes or strata in which the individual moves from one social-class level to another
intergenerational mobility form of vertical mobility in which status differs between generations in the same family
poverty standard of living that is below the minimum level considered decent and reasonable by society
poverty level minimum annual income needed by a family to survive
life chances likelihood individuals have of sharing in the opportunities and benefits of society
life expectancy average number of years a person born in a particular year can be expected to live
transfer payments principal way in which the government attempts to reduce social inequality by redistributing money among various segments of society
Created by: CoachLeach