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Leach Soc Chapter 8

Leach Sociology Terms Chapter 8

deviance behavior that violates significant social norms
stigma mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant appart from the rest of society
criminologist social scientist that study criminal behavior
strain theory theory of diviant begavior that views deviance as the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structure of society
anomie situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear or are no longer applicable
control theory theory of deviant behavior in which deviance is seen as a natural occurrence and conformity is seen as the result of social control
cultural transmission theory theory that views deviance as a learned behavior tranmitted through interaction with others
differential association proportion of associations a person has with deviant versus non-deviant individuals
techniques of neutralization suspending moral beliefs to commit deviant acts
labeling theory theory that focuses on how individuals come to be labeled as diviant
primary deviance nonconformity undetected by authority in which the individuals who commit deviant acts do not consider themselves to be deviant, and neither does society
secondary deviance nonconformity that results in the individuals who commit acts of secondary deviance being labeled as deviant and accepting that label as true
degradation ceremony the process of labeling an individual as diviant
crime any act that is labeled as such by those in authority, is prohibited by law, and is punishable by the government
terrorism use of threatened or actual violence in the pursuit of political goals.
white-collar crime crime that is committed by an individual or individuals of high social status in the course of their professional lives
crime syndicate large-scale organization of professional criminals that controls some vice or business through violence or the threat of violence
criminal-justice system the system of police, courts, and corrections
police discretion the power held by police officers to decide who is actually arrested
racial profiling the practice of assuming nonwhite Americans are more likely to commit crimes than white Americans
plea bargaining process of legal negotiation that allows an accused person to plead guilty to a lesser charge in return for a lighter sentence
corrections sanctions-such as imprisonment, parole, and probation-used to punish criminals
recidivism repeated criminal behavior
Created by: CoachLeach