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QuestionAnswer
1. The evolution of eyespots on butterfly wings shows that they were adapted from different genes in different species. This is an example of _________________ evolution. convergent
2. An alternation in the timing of a developmental event caused by a genetic mutation is called_________________. heterochrony
3. The transformation of one body part into another caused by genetic mutation is called _________________. homeosis
4. Another name for analogous structures is _________________ structures. homoplastic
5. A plant with its floral structures arranged around a central axis has _________________ flowers. radial
6. A gene that triggers lens formation in the eyes of both vertebrates and insects is the _________________ gene. Pax6
7. Most mutations that affect developmental regulatory genes are _________________. lethal
8. A protein that binds DNA at a specific promoter or enhancer region in order to regulate complementary RNA production is called a _________________ factor. transcription
9. A major paradox of development is how highly _________________ genes can produce diverse morphologies. conserved
10. Indirect development in sea urchins involves the presence of a _________________ stage. larval
11. A major biological paradox is that genes are generally highly conserved and yet there is so much diversity among life forms existing today.
12. Genes with similar sequences in two different species of organisms, such as humans and mice may produce products that have slightly to dramatically different functions.
13. The development of eyes has been intensively studied. Eyes of vertebrates and insects are analogous (homoplastic), not homologous, yet the same Pax6 gene initiates development.
14. Regarding genome sequences and organismal development, it is important to remember that changing the timing of gene expression can have dramatic changes in development.
15. The evolution of patterns on insect wings can be affected by all of the following functions except aesthetics.
16. One of the reasons why the model systems of yeast, Arabidopsis, nematode worms, fruit flies, and mice are so often used to study functional analysis of genes is because they have short life cycles.
17. Eyes in mammals and _____________ are examples of convergent evolution. compound eyes in fruit flies
18. Eyes in different animal groups arose independently many times, and the genes triggering lens formation in these different groups are homologous.
19. The Pax6 gene, responsible for initiating lens formation in mice, can be inserted into fruit flies and can be expressed to initiate formation of a fruit fly eye, but in the wrong place.
20. Experiments with ribbon worms and planaria have shown that Pax6-related genes are not always required for eye regeneration.
21. HOX and MADS box genes have all of the following in common except they evolved recently.
22. Which of the following is not usually involved in the development of a new morphology? evolution of a new gene to code for the new morphology
23. In the change from indirect development to direct development in sea urchins all of the following items are lost except developmental genes.
24. The evolution of initiation of limb development in tetrapods is best explained by the co-option of an existing gene for a new function.
25. The evolution of notochord development in ascidians is best explained by the co-option of an existing gene for a new function.
26. The evolution of development of snout-length in cichlid fish is best explained by a single gene mutation.
27. The evolution of insect wing patterns is best explained by homoplastic convergence.
28. The evolution of flower symmetry is best explained by homoplastic convergence.
29. The evolution of petals through the AP3 gene is best explained by gene duplication and divergence.
30. The evolution of cauliflower and broccoli from wild cabbage is best explained by a single gene mutation.
31. Which of the following statements about the evolution of cauliflower and broccoli from wild cabbage is false? Natural selection favored the CAL gene with the stop codon over the ancestral CAL gene.
32. Which of the following statements about the evolution of notochord development in ascidians is false? The Brachyury gene is not present in vertebrates.
33. Which of the following statements about the initiation of limb development in tetrapods is false? The development of homologous structures usually involves activation of the same genes.
34. Which of the following statements about the evolution of insect wing patterns is false? Wing patterns, such as eyespots, are derived through the action of homologous genes on the distribution of scales in the wing.
35. Which of the following statements about the evolution of flower symmetry is false? All cases of flowers with bilateral symmetry involve the CYCLOIDIA (CYC) gene.
36. Which of the following statements about the early evolution of flower development is false? With the duplication of paleoAP3, AP3 gained a role in stamen development.
37. Which of the following statements about experiments to determine the roles of AP3 and PI in petal development is false? ap3 mutant plants can produce stamens but not petals.
38. Which of the following statements about the roles of AP3 and PI in petal development in the eudicots is false? The C terminus sequence of the AP3 protein is conserved among the ancestral flowering plants.
39. Which of the following items is not an activity normally associated with functional gene analysis? Work only with model organisms.
40. Which of the following statements about the evolution of eyes is false Different animal groups use different genes to code for eye development.
41. Which of the following statements about the evolution of eyes in mice and fruit flies is false? When the mouse gene Pax6 is inserted into a fruit fly; it forms a vertebrate-type lens on the fly's leg.
42. Which of the following statements about the evolution of eye development in the ribbon worm (Lineussanquineus) and planaria is false? Inactivating Pax6-related genes in planaria suppresses eyespot formation.
43. Which of the following observations does not support the hypothesis that the initiation of eye development in animals occurred only once. In some organisms, Pax6-related genes are associated with development of the forehead.
44. Which of the following items does not clearly relate to the evolutionary paradox of development? Much of phenotypic variation is environmentally caused.
45. Which of the following statements about the cichlid fish of Lake Malawi is false? Hundreds of different genes determine the length of the jaw in these fish.
46. Which of the following statements about MADS box genes is false? The MADS box region is highly divergent; other regions are highly conserved.
Created by: ClaEsc on 2011-10-19



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