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Sociology-Exam 2

Matthew Pruitt's Introduction to Sociology Exam 2

What is a status set? a collection of social statuses that an individual occupies at a given time
What is status inconsistency? The conflict or tension that arises from occupying social positions that are ranked differently
What is role performance? The actual behavior of a person who occupies a status
What is a role set? The different roles attached to a single status
What is role conflict? The frustrations and uncertainties a person experiences when confronted with the requirements of two or more statuses
What is role strain? the stress arising from incompatible demands among roles within a single status
For interactionists, what is the most significant feature of all human communication? For interactionists, the most significant feature of all human communication is that people take each other and the context into account
What is ethnomethodology? -The study of how people construct and learn to share definitions of reality that makes everyday interactions possible
What are the two ways in which people make sense of their everyday lives? People make sense of their everyday lives in two ways. First, by observing conversations people can discover the general rules that we all use to interact meaningfully. Second, people can understand interaction rules by breaking them
What is impression management? a process of suppressing unfavorable traits and stressing favorable ones
What is the fundamental premise of social exchange theory? The fundamental premise of social exchange theory is that a social interaction between two people is based on each person’s trying to maximize rewards (or benefits) and minimize punishments (or costs)
What is emotional labor? the management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display
Is talk more often an end in itself for men or women? Because women tend to use communication to develop and maintain relationships , talk is often and end in itself
Are men or women more likely to do conversational maintenance work? women are more likely than men to do conversational “maintenance work,” such as asking questions that encourage conversation
In addition to speaking more frequently and for longer periods of time, men also show conversational dominance by what? they also show dominance by interrupting others, reinterpreting the speaker’s meaning, or rerouting the conversation
How do male students view female professors touching them on the arm while talking to them? when female professors touch male students on the arm while talking to them, the students view the gesture as nurturing and friendly
Why do people in Middle Eastern countries not offer anything to one another with their left hand? in some middle eastern countries, people don’t offer anything to another within the left hand, the hand used to clean oneself after using the toilet
How does the rate of casual touch in the US compare with the rest of the world? according to one scholar, compared with those in some other societies, people in the United States are “touch-deprived” because they have one of the lowest rates of casual touch in the world
What distances are associated with private, social, and public space? private= 1.5-2 feet, social= 4 feet, public = 12+ feet
What example is provided in your text of a space intrusion that is not a physical encroachment? Loud cell phone conversations are a good example of auditory intrusion into our personal space
Who are the most wired group in the US? Asian Americans
What are emoticons and why are they used? emoticons, like smiley faces or frowning ones, are used to convey voice inflections and facial expressions
What is a social group? two or more people who interact with one another and who share a common identity and a sense of belonging or “we-ness”
What is the key ingredient in creating and maintaining groups? interaction, especially face-to-face interaction is the key ingredient in creating and maintaining groups
Why are social groups essential? social groups are essential because they provide an important part of our social identity and help us understand the behavior of other people in our society
What is a primary group? a relatively small group of people who engage in intimate face-to-face interaction over an extended period of time
What is a secondary group? a large, usually formal, impersonal, and temporyary collection of people who pursue a specific goal or activity
While primary groups meet our _____ needs, secondary groups fulfill _____ needs. While primary groups meet our expressive needs, secondary groups fulfill our instrumental needs.
What is an in-group? People who share a sense of identity and “we-ness” that typically excludes and devalues outsiders (race, ethnicity, gender, religion, age, social class)
What is an out-group? People who are viewed and treated negatively because they are seen as having values, beliefs, and other characteristics different from those of an in-group
What is reference group? A collection of people who shape our behavior, values, and attitudes
In Asch’s research, what percent of confederates ended up agreeing with the false judgments of the group? In Asch’s research 37% of the nonconfederates ended up agreeing with the false judgments of the group
Even when we know something is clearly wrong, we may go along with the group to avoid what? Even when we know something is clearly wrong, we may go along with the group to avoid ridicule or exclusion
In Milgram’s research, when the learners shrieked in pain, the majority of the teachers did what? When the learners shrieked in pain, the majority of the teachers, although distressed, obeyed the study supervisor and administered the shocks when told to do so.
Many social scientists used Milgram’s findings to explain what recent event? Many social scientists used Milgram’s findings to explain the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraw where US soldiers abused and humiliated Iraqi prisoners because “I was just following orders.”
What is groupthink? A tendency of in-group members to confirm without critically testing, analyzing, and evaluating ideas that results in a narrow view of an issue
A US Senate study (2004) on intelligence agencies provides an example of groupthink in the decision to do what? Reeport concluded that US leader’s decision to invade Iraq in 2003 was based on a groupthink dynamic that relied on unproven and inaccurate assumptions, inadequate or misleading sources, and a dismissal of conflicting information. no womd
What is a formal organization? a complex and structured secondary group that has been deliberately created to achieve specific goats in an efficient manner
What is a bureaucracy? a formal organization that is designed to accomplish goals and tasks through the efforts of a large number of people in the most efficient and rational way possible
What are the six key characteristics of the ideal type of bureaucracy as identified by Weber? High degree of division of labor and specialization. Hierarchy of authority. Explicit written rules and regulations, Impersonality, qualifications-based employment, separation of work and ownership
What is bureaucratic ritualism? a preoccupation with rules and regulations rather than the organizations objectives
What is Parkinson’s law? the idea that work expands to fill the time available for its completion
What are the four components of McDonaldization? 1. efficiency 2. calculability 3. Predictability 4. Contro
Women make up what percent of Fortune 500 CEOs and board directors at Fortune 500 companies? -2% of Fortune 500 CEOS -15% board directors at Fortune 500 companies
What is the glass ceiling? a collection of attitudinal or organizational biases in the workplace that prevent women from advancing to leadership positions
What is a social institution? an organized and established social system that meets one or more of a society’s basic needs
According to functionalists, what are five major social institutions wordwide? 1.The family 2.The economy 3.Political institutions 4.Education 5.religion
What is stigma? a stigma is a negative label that devalues a person and changes her or his self-concept and social identity
Only during the 1980s and 1990s did the U.S. laws define what as crime? Only during the 1980s and 1990s did US laws define date rape, marital rape, stalking, and child abuse as crimes.
What is crime? Crime is a violation of societal norms and rules for which punishment is specified by public law
What are criminologists? Criminologists are researchers who use scientific methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior.
What is the best known and most widely cited source of official crime statistics? The best known and most widely cited source of official statistics is the FBI’s Uniform Crime Report, which includes crimes reported to the police and arrests made each year
Approximately what percent of all crimes committed in the US go unreported? Roughly 60% of all crimes committed in the US go unreported to the police
What is a victim survey? A victim survey is a method of gathering data that involves interviewing people about their experiences as crime victims
What does cleared by arrest mean? An offense is considered cleared when at least one person involved in the commission of the offense has been; (1) arrested, (2) charged, and (3) turned over to the court for prosecution
What is white-collar crime? White-collar crime refers to illegal activities committed by high-status individuals in the course of their occupation
What is occupational crime? Occupational crimes are illegal activities committed in the workplace by individuals acting solely in their own personal interest
What is corporate crime? Corporate crimes care illegal acts committed by executives to benefit themselves and their companies; includes crimes such as conspiracies to stifle free market competition, price-fixing, tax evasion, and false advertising
Of the 193 countries in the world, how many have made rape a crime? Of the 193 countries in the world, only 104 have made rape a crime, and the existing laws are rarely enforced
What is primary deviance? -the initial violation of a norm or law; can range from relatively minor offenses, such as not attending a family member’s funeral, to serious offenses, such as stealing and murder
What is secondary deviance? rule-breaking behavior that people adopt in response to the reactions of others
What are two barriers that make it very difficult for ex-inmates to reenter society? Ex-inmates have a very difficult time reentering society because of numerous barriers such as employers’ refusing to hire people with criminal records and landlords’ unwillingness to rent apartments to people who have been released from prison
The US has less than _____ percent of the world’s population, but almost a _____ of the planets’ prisoners. The US has less than 5% of the world’s population, but almost a quarter of the planet’s prisoners
What country has the most inmates per capita? The United States
Does the evidence suggest that executions deter crime? Many Americans believe that executions deter crime, but there is no evidence that this is the case. For example, the South, which accounts for 82 percent of executions, also has the highest murder rates
_____ of released prisoners are back behind bars within 3 years. More than half of released prisoners are back behind bars within 3 years
Times when crime and deviance are considered dysfunctional? 1.Create tension and insecurity. A babysitter canceling last minute 2.Erode trust in personal and formal relationships. Date rape 3.Damage confidence in institution. Toyota brakes 4.Are costly. Pay higher prices to procure criminals and build prisons
Times when crime and deviance are considered functional 1.Affirm cultural norms and values. Expel cheaters. 2.Provide temporary safety values. spring break, short lived 3.Create social unity. 9/11, greater solidarity 4.Improve the economy. prisons = jobs 5.Trigger social change. Crime = system isn’t workin
What are sanctions? Sanctions are punishments or rewards for obeying or violating a norm
What are positive sanctions? Positive sanctions are rewards for desirable behavior and include such things as a smile, a hug, a compliment, or a trophy/promotion/good grade
What are negative sanctions? Negative sanctions are punishments that convey disapproval for violating a norm and ranger from frowns and gossip to fines, arrests, and incarcerations
First Stage of Society 1. Hunting and gathering: nomadic, simple division of labor; did not accumulate possessions so there was no inequality
Second Stage of Society 2. Pastoral and Horticultural: associated with domestication of plants and animals; first social revolution; allowed people to have more food = larger population; specialized division of labor and rise of inequality
Third Stage of Society 3. Agricultural: development of plow; second social revolution; formation of elite within society; social inequality became deeply ingrained in society
Fourth Stage of Society ndustrial: emergence of the steam engine; third social revolution; factories emerged, large cities, and social inequality increased greatly; middle class began to emerge and lessen inequality; more people had more of the money
Fifth Stage of Society 5.Postindustrial: knowledge based society; factor or manufacturing jobs began to decrease as factories moved overseas; more lower wage jobs are emerging; concern is that the middle class is shrinking and wages have remained stagnant
Control Theory Tries to explain why people conform
Why are people naturally motivated to deviate? 1.Humans are antisocial by nature=selfinterest 2.Deviance is often fun and attractive 3.Deviance is often a quicker means to an end
Hirschi The stronger the bond an individual has to society, the less likely they are to deviate
4 elements of the Social Bond 1.attachment-bonded to their groups through feelings of affection and respect 2.commitment-stake/investment people have in conforming 3.involvement-involvement in activities in a non-deviant nature 4.belief-person's allegiance to dominant value system
Techniques of Neutralization Ways people can lessen or remove guilt, shame, anxiety, or other negative emotions that normally accompany involvement in deviance
Denial of Responsibility deviants argue their behavior is due to external factors beyond their control (i.e. grew up in a bad home)
Denial of Injury weather an action causes harm is sometimes open to interpretation
Denial of the Victim can take two forms 1) deviant view their behavior as a form of retaliation or punishment and the victim is the original wrongdoer or 2) the victim is unknown, physically absent, or a vague abstraction
Labeling Theory Argue that the process of being labeled deviant or criminal can lead to rejection by family and friends and loss of employment and educational opportunities, pushing people towards further involvement in deviance
Strain Theory-Anomie Theory(Robert Merton) Mainstream values actually generate crime. People have the desire to reach cultural goals, but not everyone has equal access to the institutionalized means. Means to success are not equal.
Illegitimate Opportunity Theory (Cloward and Ohlin) An adaptation of Merton strain theory: there are also differentials in access to illegitimate means
Reasons for Imprisonment Retribution, Deterrence, Rehabilitation, Incapacitation
Retribution punishment because of what they have done they will pay, get even
Deterrence Specific: when a specific individual is deterred from future crime because of their punishment General: when memebers of the larger society are dettered from crime because of another persons punishment
Incapacitation They are locked away and cannot victimize the larger society
Recidivism prisoners who are rearrested; our percentage rate for this is extremely high
Last public execution In Owensboro, KY in 1936 15,000 people attended the hanging
8th Amendment Prohibits cruel and unusual punishment
5 method of execution found to be constitutional electric chair, lethal injection, gas chamber, firing squad, hanging
Macro-sociology places the focus on broad features of society; used by conflict theory and functionalists; goal is to examine large scale social forces that influence people
Micro-sociology the emphasis is placed on social interaction among individuals; used by symbolic interactionists
social structure organized pattern of behavior that governs peoples relationships
Aspects of Social Structure culture, social class, social status
Ascribed Status involuntary, born into, or receive involuntarily later in life (i.e. religious beliefs)
Achieved Status earned, involves activity or effort on your part (i.e. college student)
Master Status central, identifying characteristic of a person (i.e. actor, deviant/criminal)
Social Institutions organized and established social systems that meet one or more of societies basic needs
Dramaturgy associated with social interaction at the individual level; life is like a play or drama and social life is the stage
Embarrassment discomfort following a spoiled performance; "losing face"
Tact ignoring flaws in someone's performance; helping someone "save face"
Front Stage where performances are given
Back Stage where they rest from their performances, discuss presentations, plan future performances
Thomas Theorem If people define situations as real, they are are real in their consequences
Universal Emotions anger, fear, disgust, happiness, surprise, sadness
3 Cultural Differences in the Expression of Emotion 1.What triggers emotions varies cross-culturally 2.People's displays of emotion according to the norms of their culture 3.Cultures differ in how people cope with emotions
Hope is the thing with feathers that perches in the soul and sings the tune without the words and never stops at all. Emily Dickinson
Deviance behaviors, beliefs, and conditions that violate the norms of society or specific social groups
How does deviance vary? over time, cross culturally, within subcultures of a given society
It is not the act itself but the reactions to the act that make something deviant. Becker
Differential Association Theory (Sutherland) Criminal behavior is learned; also argues that conformity is also learned
Created by: taylorann93