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zoo lect. ch 6-8

functions of skin resistance to trauma and infection, barrier, vitamin D synthesis, sensation, thermoregulation, nonverbal communication, transdermal absorption
epidermis dead cells packed with keratin, lack blood cells, 5 layers
dermis connective tissue, well suported with blood, sweat glands, and nerve endings
what factors contribute to normal skin color melanin produced by melanocytes
cyanosis blueness of the skin from deficiency of oxygen in the ciruclating blood
erythema abnormal redness of the skin due to dilated cutaneous vessels
pallor pale or ashen color when there is so little blood flow through the skin that the white color of dermal collagen is visible
jaundice yellowing of the skin and sclera due to excess of bilirubin in blood
hematoma mass of clotted blood showing through the skin
Lanugo hair fine, downy, unpigmented hair that appears on the fetus in the last three months of development
vellus hair fine, pale hair that replaces lanugo by the time of birth
Terminal hair longer, coarser, and usually more heavily pigmented
parts of hair bulb, root, shaft
part of follicle papilla of hair and matrix
Merocrine glands tubular, must numerous, watery perspiration that coats body
Apocrine glands ducts lead to near-by hair follicles, respond to stress and sexual stimulation, developed at puberty
Sebaceous glands sebum, flask shaped glands with short ducts, opening into hair follicle, keeps skin and hair from being dry
Ceruminous glands found only in external ear canal, secretion combines with sebum and dead epithelial calls to form ear wax
Mammary glands milk producing glands that develop during pregnancy and lactation
Basal carcinoma most common, least dangerous because it seldom metastasizes, forms from cells in stratum basal, lesion is small with shiny bump with central depression
squamous cell carcinoma arise from keratinocytes, appear on scalp, ears, lower lip, or back of hand, have raised reddened scaly appearance , tends to metastasize to lymph nodes and may become lethal
malignant carcinoma arises from melanocytes, unresponsive to chemotherapy, greatest risk factor is family history of malignant melanoma
First degree burns partial thickness burn, involves only epidermis
Second degree burns partial- thickness burn, involves the epidermis and part of the dermis
Third degree burns full-thickness burn, the epidermis and all of the dermis and often some deeper tissues
tissues and organs that compose the skeletal system Bone, cartilage, and ligaments
functions of the skeletal system Support, protection, movement, electrolyte balance, acid- base balance, blood formation
Long bones arms and legs, longer than wide, rigid layers acted upon by muscles
Flat bones skull and scapula- protect soft organs, curved but whole and thin
Osteogenic cells stem cells found in endosteum, periosteum, and in central canals; Produce osteoblasts via mitosis
Osteoblasts bone forming cells (nonmitotic) synthesis soft organic matter of the matrix which then hardens by mineral deposition
Osteocytes former osteoblasts that have become trapped in the matrix they have deposited. Contribute to homeostatic mechanism of bone density and calcium and phosphate ions
Osteoclast bone dissolving cells found on the bone surface. Develop from some bone marrow stem cells that give rise to blood cells
Describe the matrix of bone tissue include the composition of fibers and minerals Organic matter is synthesized by osteoblast Inorganic matter is composed of 85% hydroxyapatitie and 10% calcium
Red marrow hemopoietic tissue
Yellow marrow found in adults. Most red marrow turns into fatty yellow marrow, no longer produces blood
What are two diseases associated with bone matrix process Rickets and osteogenesis
Intramembranous ossification comes from condensation of mesebchyme cells, produces flat bones of skull and clavicle
Endochondral ossification comes from hyaline cartilage
Achondroplastic dwarfism long bones stop growing in childhood, normal torso and short limbs
Pituitary dwarfism lack of growth hormone, normal proportions with short stature
Low levels of vitamin D produce what disease Rickets and osteomalecia
Stress fracture caused by abnormal trauma to bone(wreck)
Pathological fracture break ion bone weakened by some disease
Closed reduction bone fragments are manipulated into normal position without surgery
Open reduction surgical exposure of bone involving plates, screws, or pins
Cast used to stabilize and immobilize healing bone
osteoporosis Sever loss of bone density, most common type of bone disease. Because estrogen maintains density in bone and when a woman goes through menopause her body slows down on estrogen production which is what helps regulate bone density
What is a calcitriol a form of vitamin D produced by sequential action of skin, liver, and kidneys
What are the steps of calcitriol production epidermis uses Uv rays to convert steriod to previtamin D, liver adds hydroxyl group & makes calcidiol, kidneys add hyroxyl group & makes calcitriol
In what ways does calcitriol change calcium production it increases Ca absorption by small intestines, increases Ca reabsorption from skeleton, and promotes kidney reabsorption of Ca ions so less is loss in urine
what is calcitonin secreted by C cells og the thyroid gland when calcuim levels rise too high
how does calcitonin lower Ca concentration in blood osteoclast inhibitation, reduces osteoclast activity and osteoblast stimulation, increases the number and activity of osteoblast
what is PTH parathyroid hormone, secreted by parathyroid glands
when is PTH realease when Ca levels are low
how does PTH change Ca levels binds to receptors on osteoblast stimulating them to raise osteoclast population, promotes Ca reabsorbtion by kidneys, promotes last steps of calcitriol synthesis , and inhibits collagen synthesis by osteoblast inhibiting bone deposition
What are foramen and what is the function holes in the bones that allow passage for nerves and blood vessels
What are the 3 basins on the crainium and associate brain lobes anterior cranial fossa(frontal lobe) middle cranial fossa (temporal lobe) posterior cranial (cerebellum)
Function of temporal lines on the parietal bones They serve as attachment of the temporalis muscle
external opening ear canal
internal auditory meatus opening for vestibulocohlear nerve- inner ear to brain for hearing
mastoid process air sinuses communicate with ear
mastoid notch origin of digastric muscle
superior and inferior nuchal lines of occipital bone mark attachment for neck and back muscles
foramen magnum holds spinal cord
sella tursica pituitary gland
Function of nasal conchea create turbulence of airflow and humidify the air before it reaches the lungs
What is the Alveolar Process bony points between teeth
What causes a cleft palate when the palatine process doesn’t close all the way
Function lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac in life
nasal bones forms bridge of nose, supports cartilages that shape the lower portion of nose
vomer supports cartilage that forms the anterior part of the nasal septum
Function of mandible and describe the Temporal mandibular joint mandible provides attachments for muscles of facial expression and mastication. The temporal mandibular joint is a hinge that is formed when the madibular condyles articulate with the mandibular fossa
What does a fractured hyoid indicate evidence of strangulation
What are fontanels spaces between unfused bones
How many vertebre are in each group cervical -7, thoracic -12, lumbar- 5, sacral- 5 fused ones, cocxygeal – 4 fused
Describe the abnormal curvatures of the spine scoliosis - abnormal lateral curve, kyphosis(hunckback)- exaggerated thoracic curvature, Lordosis(swayback)- exaggerated lumbar curve
Function of vertebral body weight bearing portion of vertebrae
transverse process extends laterally from point were pedicle and lamina meet. Articulates with ribs in thoracic vertebrae3 facets
Describe structure of a intervertebral disc pad that consist of nucleus pulpose (inner gelatinous mass) and annulus fiborosus (outer ring of fibrocartilage)
herniated disc ruptured or slipped disc. Puts painful pressure on spinal nerve or spinal cord
Function of atlas supports head, articulates with occipital condyles and allows “yes” motion of head
axis allows “no” motion of head. Projects into vertebral foramen of the atlas and is held in place by transverse ligament
What age does sacrum fuse begins around 16 and is complete at 26
What commonly causes breakage of coccyx difficult child birth or hard fall on butt
Function of the thoracic cage provides attachment for pectoral girdle and upper limbs and its costal margin
Sescribe the different types of ribs 12 pairs of ribs, 1-7 are true ribs and connect directly to the sternum. 8-10 are false ribs and connect to sternum by cartilage connections. 11-12 are floating ribs and are not connected to sternum at all
What is the risk of chest compressions with the xiphoid process if performed improperly it can drive the xiphoid process into the liver and cause a fatal hemorrhage
T or F. Manubrium articulates with clavicle and R1. true
How are the ribs attached to the sternum by the head of the ribs
Name the type of cartilage that attaches the ribs costal cartilage
What are the bones of the pectoral girdle clavicle and scapula
What are the main joints of the shoulder (3) sternoclavicular joint, acromioclavicular joint, glenohumeral joint
What is the name of the 2 fossa/s on each side of the spine called supraspinous fossa and infaspinous fossa
Name the region of the upper limbs brachium-upper arm, antebrachium-forearm, carpus- wrist, manus- hand
The head of the humerus articulates with the ____cavity glenoid cavity
The ______ articulates with the ulna trochlea
Describe the head of the radius and how does it relate to function disc-shaped , allows for rotation around the radial notch on the ulna
Name the structure of the ulna that articulates with the humerus trochlea
What is the interserrous membrane and the function a ligament that attaches radius to the ulna along the interosseous margin of each bone enables the two elbow joints to share the load
What bones make up the pelvic girdle ossa coxae and the sacrum
Function of the pelvis supports trunk on the lower limbs and protects viscera, lower colon, urinary bladder, and internal reproductive organs
Describe the pelvic inlet most difficult passage for infants head at birth
male pelvic girdle heavier and thicker due to forces exerted by stronger muscles
Female pelvic girdle wider and shallower subpubic angle, larger pelvic inlet and outlet for passage of infants head
Name the regions of the lower limbs femoral-thigh, crural-leg, tarsal-ankle, and pedal-foot
What is the function of the fovea capita pit in head of femur for attachment of a ligament
Describe the attachment of the patella to the rest of the leg the quadriceps tendon attaches the top portion of the patella and the patellar ligament attaches it to the tibia
What is the weight bearing bone of the crural region tibia
Why are tarsal bones shaped differently than carpal bones because of load bearing role of ankle
What is the purpose of the arch in the foot to absorb stress
What are common causes for flat feet excessive weight, repetitious stress, or congenital weakness
Created by: jelizabeth10