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Myers 9 Chapter 8

Bell West / Memory

QuestionAnswer
memory the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
encoding the processing of information into the memory system
storage the retention of encoded information over time.
retrieval the process of getting information out of memory storage
sensory memory the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
short-term memory activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
long-term memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills and experiences
working memory a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
automatic processing unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
effortful processing encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
rehearsal the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
spacing effect the tendency for distributed study or practice to yeild better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
serial position effect our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
visual encoding the encoding of picture images
acoustic encoding the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
semantic encoding the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
imagery mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
mnemonics memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
chunking organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
iconic memory a momentary sensory memory of visualstimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
echoic memory a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
long-term potentiation an increase in a synapse's firing potentialafter brief, rapid stimulation.
flashbulb memory a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
amnesia the loss of memory.
implicit memory retention independent of conscious recollection.
explicit memory memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
hippocampus a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.
recall a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fil-in-the-blank test.
recognition a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
relearning a maesure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
priming the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
deja vu that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
mood-congruent memory the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
proactive interference the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
retroactive interference the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
repression in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
misinformation effect incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
source amnesia attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
Created by: rkratina on 2011-10-07



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