or...
Reset Password Free Sign Up


incorrect cards (0)
correct cards (0)
remaining cards (0)
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the Correct box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the Incorrect box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

Correct box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards



Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Biosci 106 part 1

Biosci 106 - HMMB =] (other topics in part 2)

QuestionAnswer
What is the main source of galactose for humans? Milk
What is galactose used for in the human body? Galactose is isomerised to glucose to be metabolised.
A person who is deficient in galactose is said to have? Galactosaemia
Fructose is derived from? Sucrose
What is involved in the reaction of Fructose to Fructose-1-phosphate (Fructose metabolism)? Enzyme = fructokinase. 2 ATP are used. F1P is then broken down into G3P to go into glycolytic and CAC pathways.
What are the problems caused by converting Frtuctose to Fructose-1-phosphate over a long period of time? It can contribute to obesity as fructose metabolism bypasses phosphofructokinase - the regulatory enzyme in glycolysis.
What are the two ways by which ATP can be produced? -Substrate phosphorylation -Oxidative phosphorylation
Is ATP required to be present in the human diet? No it is not. ATP is so essential for an organism to function that all organism's can make ATP themselves
ATP is what type of co-factor? A nucleotide-based cofactor.
GTP is used in? GTP is used in reactions of protein synthesis
The main function of UTP is? UTP is used for polysaccharide synthesis
CTP is used for? CTP is used for phospholipid synthesis
Can amino acids be synthesised by humans? Yes, more than half of the amino acids required can be synthesised by humans.
What is Transamination? Transamination is the interconversion of amino and
What is the main source of galactose for humans? Milk
What is galactose used for in the human body? Galactose is isomerised to glucose to be metabolised.
A person who is deficient in galactose is said to have? Galactosaemia
Fructose is derived from? Sucrose
What is involved in the reaction of Fructose to Fructose-1-phosphate (Fructose metabolism)? Enzyme = fructokinase. 2 ATP are used. F1P is then broken down into G3P to go into glycolytic and CAC pathways.
What are the problems caused by converting Frtuctose to Fructose-1-phosphate over a long period of time? It can contribute to obesity as fructose metabolism bypasses phosphofructokinase - the regulatory enzyme in glycolysis.
What are the two ways by which ATP can be produced? -Substrate phosphorylation -Oxidative phosphorylation
Is ATP required to be present in the human diet? No it is not. ATP is so essential for an organism to function that all organism's can make ATP themselves
ATP is what type of co-factor? A nucleotide-based cofactor.
GTP is used in? GTP is used in reactions of protein synthesis
The main function of UTP is? UTP is used for polysaccharide synthesis
CTP is used for? CTP is used for phospholipid synthesis
Can amino acids be synthesised by humans? Yes, more than half of the amino acids required can be synthesised by humans.
What is Transamination? Transamination is the interconversion of amino and alpha-keto acids by acquiring the amino group from glutamate (Look at course book for equation)
What undergoes B-oxidation and where does it occur? Fatty acid-CoA undergoes B-oxidation in the mitochondrial matrix.
Outline the four main steps of B-oxidation 1. A dehydrogenase acts upon the a-B C-C bond 2. Hydration of the same bond. 3. 2nd dehydrogenase to yield a B-keto group 4. attack by CoASH: new shorter fatty acid-CoA
What happens after one cycle of B-oxidation? After 2 carbons have been broken off the fatty acid in the form of Acetyl-CoA it goes to the CAC. the new shorter FA-CoA re-enters B-oxidation. FADH2 and NADH are reoxidised bt the electron transport chain
What is the difference between fatty acids with an even number of carbons that undergo B-oxidation and those that have an odd number of carbons? Even numbered carbon chains are completely oxidised. Odd-carbon fatty acids end up as propionyl-SCoA -> methylmalonyl-CoA (by CO2 fixation) -> succinyl-CoA (which goes to the CAC
Unsaturated fatty acids need an additional ________ when undergoing B-oxidation to rearrange the ________ ________ Unsaturated fatty acids need an additional ENZYME when undergoing B-oxidation to rearrange the C=C BOND
Under what conditions would acetyl-CoA not be oxidised in the CAC? (give reasons) If there is not enough oxaloacetate. This would only occur when the metabolism of fat outweighs that of carbohydrates
What are ketone bodies used for? ketone bodies are used by other body tissues as a METABOLIC FUEL. ketone bodies are readily transported in the blood.
State the four equations that are involved in the reaction of Acetyl-CoA to ketone Bodies 1 2acetyl-CoA -> Acetoacetyl CoA Enz =thiolase 2 Acetoacetyl CoA + Acetyl-CoA -> HMG-CoA enz= HMG-CoA synthase 3 HMG-CoA -> Acetoacetate enz = HMG-CoA lyase 4 Acetoacetate ->Acetone/B-hyroxybutyrate Enz = B-hybroxybutyrate dehydrogenase
Where does the formation of ketone Bodies occur? In liver mitochondria
What is another name for vitamin B1? Thiamine
What is the dietary requirement for thiamine (vitamin B1)? 1.0 - 1,5 mg/day. This is increased with fever, heeavy exercise or high carbohydrate intake
What are good sources of thiamine? Red meat, whle grains, potatoes, peas, beans, nuts, yeast
What happens to thiamine when food containing thiamine os cooked and why? it can be lost as thiamine is water-soluble
What can contribute to Thaimine deficiency? It is seen in people who eat rice. Malabsorption, malunitrition, alcohol and diarrhoea can also contribute. Antacids and other medicines that reduce stomach acidity can also destroy it.
A person who is deficient in Thiamine (vitamin B1) is said to have? Beriberi. There are two types - wet and dry beriberi. Wet beriberi affects the cardiovascular system. Dry beriberi affects the nervous system
What are the early symptoms of dry beriberi? -con stipation - appetite suppression - nausea - mental depression - peripheral neiropathy - fatigue - anorexia - anxiety states - weakness of muscles of extremities
What are the common characteristics of 'wet beriberi'? -ataxia - mental confusion - loss of eye coordination - confabulation (the creation of false memories) - disorderede muscle function - accumulation of lactate adn pyruvate in plasma - leads to edema - CARDIAC FAILURE
A person who has Pellagra is deficient in which vitamin and what are the symptoms? (all 4 symptoms begin with D) Deficient in Niacin (vitamin B3). Symptoms are - dermatitis - diarrhoea - dementia - death
Panthothenic Acid is also known as? Vitamin B5
What is the daily requirement for Vitamin B5? 10-15mg
Coenzyme A (CoASH) has its reactive thiol compound derived from what? pantothenate
What is another name for folate? Folic acid, or Vitamin B9
What is the dietary requirement for Folate? (incl body reserves, daily intake and daily requirement) Our daily requirement is 100-200ug (this increases to 400+ ug during pregnancy or trauma). Our body reserve is 20mg. Our daily intake is 500-700ug
What is a source of Folate for humans? -liver - spinach - citrus - fresh vege's. It is however destroyed by cooking. We also get some folate from our intestinal bacteria.
What are the main causes of folate deficiency? poor dietary habits (eg alcoholism) - impaired absorption or metabolism - an increase in the demand, but no increase in the supply ( eg during pregnancy)
What are the effects of being deficient in folate? It has an effect on DNA SYNTHESIS as dTMP synthesis is imapired. The result is magaloblastic and macrocytic anaemia
What is megaloblastic anaemia? It occurs when there is cell growth without division
What is macrocytic anaemia? When there are abnormally large erythrocytes
What is the RDI of B12? 3ug/day (50% is absorbed)
What are common sources of B12? Liver - kidney - whole milk - eggs - oyster - shrimp - pork - chicken
Whatis another name for vitamin B12? "extrinsic factor" cyancobalamin
A person who is deficient in B12 is said to have? Pernicious anaemia
Folic acid deficiencies and Vitamin B12 deficiencies have similar symptoms. True or False? True. However there are several neurological symptoms that are present in B12 deficiency that do not occur with folate deficiency
What is Vitamin C also known as? Ascorbic acid
A person who has Scurvy if deficient in which vitamin? Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
What are the symptoms of scurvy? capillary haemorrage - bleeding and peeling gums - impaired wound healing - dissolving away of ground substance - COLLAGEN BREAKDOWN (Vit C involved in post-translational modification of collagens
What is Vit.C necessary for? For the maintenance of normal connective tissue (essential for wound healing and the synthesis of connective tissue.) - Synthesis of procollagen - hydroxylation of proline and lysine residues (redox reagent. post-translatoin modification of AA)
Name dietary sources of Vit C fruit - uncooked vegetables
How long doe sit take for scurvy to kick in? 30-70 days after ascorbic acid-free diet
How much Vit C does the human body store? 1.5g (normal) to 4g (fully saturated)
What is the daily requirement for Vit C? 45mg
Created by: fbk0371 on 2011-10-07



Copyright ©2001-2014  StudyStack LLC   All rights reserved.