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Study of tissue histology
layers of cells that cover internal or external surfaces Epithelia
Trans. mem. proteins connecting large areas of opposing plasma proteins;these bind to each other & to ECM ; membranes of adjacent cells may also be bonded to each other by a thin layer of proteoglycans that contain polysaccharides Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs):
when the lipid portions of 2 plasma membranes are tightly bound together by interlocking membrane proteins; may be found in the intestinal tract at the apical surfaces facing the lumen of the tract. tight junction
where 2 cells are held together by 2 interlocking transmembrane proteins called connexons; this allows for rapid intercellular communication gap junction
allows durable interconnections where the cells are under mechanical stress; Have a dense area that is connected to the cell cytoskeleton Desmosomes
cells adhere to one another & also remain firmly connected to the rest of the body; inner surface of each epithelium is attached to a 2 part ; the basement membrane Reticular Lamina
generally located near the basement membrane in a relatively protected location. stem cells
mechanical stress & dehydration are potential problems, apical layers packed with filaments of the protein keratin
release their secretions into the interstitial fluid; ductless glands; ex. Thyroid or pituitary. Endocrine glands
release their secretions into passage ways called ducts that open onto an epithelial surface; examples enzymes entering digestive tract, perspiration on the skin, tears in the eyes, & milk produced by mammary glands. Exocrine glands
involves the loss of cytoplasm as well as the secretory product; apical portion of cytoplasm becomes packed with secretory vesicles & then is shed; milk production (combination of merocrine & apocrine secretions). Apocrine
Destroys the gland cell; entire cell becomes packed with secretory products, then bursts releasing the secretion killing the cell further secretion depends on the replacement of destroyed gland cells by the division of stem cells; Holocrine
secrete a watery solution that contains enzymes; ex parotid salivary glands. Serous glands
form blind pockets Alveolar ( or acinar)
includes those with many types of cells & extracellular fibers in a syrupy ground substance; Connective tissue proper
Loose connective tissue & dense connective tissue divisions based on the number of cell types present, proportions of fibers & ground substance; includes adipose (loose) & tendons (dense)
most abundant permanent residents of CT proper always present secrete hyaluronan & proteins which with proteins interact to form proteoglycans that make ground substanceviscous secrete protein subunits that assemble to form large extracellular fibers. Fibroblasts
stem cells present in many connective tissues; respond to local injury or infection by dividing to form daughter cells that differentiate into fibroblasts, macrophages, or other connective tissue cells. Mesenchymal cells
large ameboid cells scattered throughout the matrix; engulf damaged cells or pathogens entering the tissue; important in mobilizing body defenses; fixed (spend long periods in a tissue; “frontline” defense); free (migrate rapidly through tissues Macrophages
sumall, mobile connective tissue cells common near blood vessels; cytoplasm is filled with granules containing histamine (released after injury or infection, stimulates local inflammation) & heparin ( granules of histamine & heparin found in basophils). mast cells
long, straight, unbranched; most common fibers; consists of a bundle of fibrous protein subunits wound like strands of a rope; flexible, but stronger than steel; tendons- connect skeletal muscles tp bones, consist of collagen; ligaments bone to bone. Collagen fibers
contain elastin (protein); branched & wavy; after stretching, return to original shape; elastic ligaments (rare) interconnect vertebrae. Elastic fibers
fills the spaces between cells &surrounds connective tissue fibers; in proper CT it is clear, colorless & viscous; dense enough bacteria have trouble moving through it; slows the spread ofpathogens making it easier for phagocytes to catch. Ground Substance
1st connective tissue to appear in a developing embryo; contains an abundance of star-shaped stem cells separated by a matrix with very fine protein filaments; gives rise to all other connective tissues; mucous connective tissue Mesenchyme
(packing material of the body; fill spaces between organs, cushion & stabilize specialized cells in manyorgans & support epithelia; surround & support blood vessels & nerves, store lipids, & provide a route for the diffusion of materials. Loose Connective Tissue
found in infants & young children between shoulder blades & around the neck is highly vascularized, adipocytes contain numerous mitochondria which give it color; brown fat
cords of dense regular tissue that attach skeletal muscle tissue to bone. Tendons
resemble tendons, but connect one bone to another or stabilize the positions of internal organs. Ligaments
form an interwoven meshwork in no consistent pattern; strengthen & support areas subjected to stresses strength to skin; except at joints, forms a sheath around cartilages (perichondrium) & bones (periosteum). Dense irregular
a thick fibrous layer dense irregular connective tissue also forms; surrounds internal organs such as the liver, kidneys, spleen & encloses the cavities of joints Capsule
watery matrix is called ; contains blood cells & fragments of cells, plasma
red blood cells (), erythrocytes
smallest blood vessels in tissues where blood pressure forces water & small solutes out of the bloodstream & across their walls; this forms interstitial fluid that bathes body’s cells. Capillaries
chrondrocytes produce a chemical that discourages their formation; chemical is antiangiogenesis factor
chrondrocytes in cartilage matrix undergo cell division, & daughter cells produce additional matrix; during development; begins early in embryonic development & continues through ; contributes the most to the mass of the adult skeleton. Interstitial growth
slender passageways in the matrix called canaliculi
fluid formed on surfaces of a serous membrane to reduce friction transudate
connective tissue layers & wrappings that surround & support organs Fasciae
skeletal muscle tissue is called striated voluntary muscle
specialized regions occurring within these connections; membranes are locked together by desmosomes, proteoglycans, & gap junctions; ion movement through gap junctions help synchronize contractions of cardiac muscle cells; Intercalated discs
striated voluntary muscle. Cardiac Muscle
Located in the walls of blood vessels, around hollow organs, & in layers around respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, & reproductive Tracts cells are small spindle-shaped cells with tapering ends & a single, oval nucleus Smooth Muscle Tissue
supporting cells that also repair neural tissue & supply nutrients to neurons Neuroglia
tissue destruction that occurs after cells have been damaged or killed; lysosomal enzymes cause the damage. Necrosis
irreversible change in size & shape of tissue cells Anaplasia
produced by chondrocytes that inhibits growth of blood vessels Angiogenesis factor
reversible change in normal shape, size, & organization of tissue cells Dysplasia
Created by: katie.nelson8