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Linguistics Exam 2

paragraph largest unit of language (made up of sentences)
sentence traditionally considered largest unit of language
syntax correct order of the morphemes
morphemes bits that make up a sentence
correct acceptable to native speaker
lexemes words
lexicon vocabulary, least fixed of constituents of language
semantics meanings carried by the words
phonology study of phonemes
phoneme sound essential to meaning (cat vs bat)
morphology study of behavior of morphemes
morpheme smallest unit of meaning, classified by function (what it does: plural) not form (what it looks like: -s); not represented by syllables (caught, stunted)
free morpheme can stand freely as words
bound morpheme cannot stand freely on own (ing; s; ed)
lexical morpheme both the word and its altered state would be found in the dictionary (marry, marriage)
gramatical morpheme change grammar of word (ing, s, ed, un-)
allomorph same function has different forms (mice is plural of mouse and cats is plural of cat)
mice mouse+plural
ran run+past
final phoneme located at end of word (wrong)
medial phoneme located within word (singer)
initial phoneme located at beginning of word
Spanish phoneme rule can't have a cluster of consonants in 1 syllable (school, escuela)
phonetic study of production and classification of human speech sounds
diacritics accents, dots, change meaning of symbol
IPA international phonetic alphabet/association
IPA goal is to produce 1 fixed symbol for each separate sound, use symbols similar to W. European languages (Greek symbols, old English, made up/upside down letters)
Pulmonic air stream flow of air produced by lungs that comes through neck and out face through organs of speech
organs of speech teeth, tongue, jaw, nose
laryngeal-oscope can see down windpipe
manners of articulation what is done to sound
place of articulation where sound is produced
voiced when the vocal chords vibrate
voiceless when the vocal chords don't vibrate
bilabial lips
labiodental lips and teeth
dental teeth
alveolar teeth at gum
palatal hard palate
velar soft palate
uvular dangly part in throat
glottal where air stream is closed off
stops plosives
fricatives constricts
affricates combination of sounds
laterals sides of mouth
grapheme the way the sound is written in language
allophone same phoneme with a different sound (ex. cockney replacement of <t> with glottal stop)
minimal pair test for phoneme, 2 words that differ in one sound
implosive air coming in when air released (ex. southern white speech) phonetic, not phonemic
shibboleth linguistic giveaway (ex. Louisiana by natives and outsiders; Houston st. by New Yorkers and visitors; Arkansas River)
primary vowels lip spreading to lip rounding
secondary vowels lip rounding to lip spreading
meaning content of what is being said (word, several words, sentence)
denotation what something actually is, factual, dictionary definition
connotation involves a speaker's attitude
Ferdinand Saussure 1. sign-word/sound (winter) 2. signified-idea that a sign invokes (cold) 3. referent-thing referred to, denotation (season)
polysemy 2 or more related meanings (bright-shining, intelligence)
homophony 2 or more unrelated meanings (bank-river, money)
synonymous 2 words that mean the exact same thing in every situation; excessive, over time one word changes meaning, rare
antonymous 2 words with opposite meaning, difficult to find a true example
compositional semantics combining words into sentences
paraphrase 2 sentences with basically the same meaning The police chased the burglar. The burglar was chased by the police.
entailment sentence a guarantees the truth of sentence b a: Prince is a dog. b: Prince is an animal.
contradiction truth of a guarantees falsehood of b a: prince is a dog. b: prince is a human.
fuzzy concepts no exact definiton (rich- no definitive line)
graded membership a concept with comparative forms
prototypical the most representative version of something (Bill Gates)
qapa falling snow in Eskimo - concept that can be presented in English with 2 words
lexicalization putting a concept into a word
motion words in English encode manner and motion (stagger, swirl)
motion words in spanish encode path (ascend, descend are lexical adaptions)
motion words in Atsugewi encode what is moving
lup Atsugewi movement of small, spherical object (hail)
qput Atsugewi movement of loose, dry dirt
swal Atsugewi movement of hanging linear objects (shirt on clothesline)
lexicalized concepts manner, path and object of motion
grammaticalization putting a concept into a functional word (past tense, plural) attached to a word, can't stand alone, alters meaning of word
Hidatsa encode evidentiality (how you know)
-ski (Waceo iikipi kure heoski) speaker certain of truth (considered lie if found false) "the man definitely carried the pipe"
-c (Waceo iikipi kure heoc) speaker believes statement is true (considered mistake if found false) "the man supposedly carried the pipe"
-wareac (Waceo iikipi kure heowareac) speaker believes this is common knowledge
-rahe (Waceo iikipi kure heorahe) an unverified report from someone else
extralinguistic not specifically stated but implied
presupposition assumption or belief based on word choice-not explicit "Lincoln was assassinated in 1865" assassinated reveals that the person was important
maxim rules
maxim of relevance be relevant; ex: Party -> I have homework, on surface response seems unrelated but maxim shows that it is an excuse not to go
maxim of quality make contribution true (sarcasm is a violation)
maxim of quantity don't say too much or too little; ex. where you live
maxim of manner avoid ambiguity/obscurity; ex. answering a question in another language
[b] voiced bilabial stop; <baby>
[p] voiceless bilabial stop; <paper>
[d̪] voiced dental stop; <dos>
[t̪] voiceless dental stop; <tú>
[d] voiced alveolar stop; <do>
[t] voiceless alveolar stop; <to>
[ɟ] voiced palatal stop; <Magyar>
[g] voiced velar stop; <give>
[k] voiceless velar stop; <kiss>
[ʔ] glottal stop; <uh-uh>
[β] voiced bilabial fricative; <hablar>
[v] voiced labiodental fricative; <very>
[f] voiceless labiodental fricative; <fairy>
[ð] voiced dental fricative; <these>
[θ] voiceless dental fricative; <thigh>
[z] voiced alveolar fricative; <zoo>
[s] voiceless alveolar fricative; <sue>
[ʒ] voiced palatal fricative; <leisure>
[ʃ] voiceless palatal fricative; <ship>
[ɣ] voiced velar fricative; <agua>
[x] voiceless velar fricative; <mujer>
[ʁ] voiced uvular fricative; <trois> (Fr.)
[χ] voiceless uvular fricative; <Achtung!> (Ger.)
[h] glottal fricative; <house>
[ts] voiceless alveolar africate; <tse-tse>
[dʒ] voiced palatal africate; <judge>
[tʃ] voiceless palatal africate; <church>
[m] bilabial nasal; <mommy>
[ɱ] labiodental nasal; <information>
[n̪] dental nasal; <¡No!>
[n] alveolar nasal; <no>
[ɲ] palatal nasal; <Español>
[ŋ] velar nasal; <sing>
[l] alveolar lateral; <leaf>
[l~] <bottle>
[ʎ] velar lateral; <castellano>
[r] alveolar roll; <first>
[ɾ] alveolar tap; <pero>
[w] bilabial semivowel; <will>
[j] palatal semivowel; <yes>
[i] high front primary; <eat>
[e] high mid front primary; <eight>
[ɛ] low mid front primary; <bet>
[a] low front primary; <la>
[ɑ] low back primary; <father>
[ɔ] low mid back primary; <hall>
[o] high mid back primary; <boat>
[u] high back primary; <tu>
[y] high front secondary; <you> (southern)
[ɒ] low back secondary; <not>
[ʌ] mid low back secondary; <love>
[ə] schwa; <America>
[ɜ] nonrhotic; <first> (british)
[ɪ] lax high front; <lick>
[ɨ but capital] central high front; <stomach>
[ʊ] tense high back; <foot>
[æ] asch; <ask>
/au/ now
/ai/ nice
/ju:/ new
/i:/ knee
/oi/ boy
/ei/ bay
Created by: Kellameister623