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ch11 jamal1


Ch. 11 & 12 STUDY NOTES
Atoms= make up everything
Parts of an atom= nucleus (protons & neutrons)
Protons= (+) charge (positive charge)
Neutron= have no charge
Opposites attract= + attracts – vice versa
Electrons= (-) charge (negative charge)
Mass of electron= is smaller than the mass of protons or neutrons
Electron cloud= makes up most of the volume of an atom
Electrons, protons, and neutrons= make up the atom (subatomic particles)
Element= is a substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by ordinary chemical means
Pure substance= matter that has the same composition throughout and cannot be separated into its parts by physical means
There are more than 100 different kinds of atoms= (about 90 of the elements are found in nature)
Examples or a natural elements= carbon, oxygen, gold, silver, and iron
Atom= is the smallest unit of an element that has the properties, or characteristics, of that element
Molecule= is a group of two or more atoms held together by very strong chemical bonds
A molecule= can be made up of more than one atom of the same element
Example= molecule in oxygen gas contains two atoms of oxygen
Compound= pure substances made up of two or more different elements that are chemically joined
Elements= are always found in the same portion
Example= table salt has the chemical formula NaCl
This compound= always has exactly one atom of sodium (Na) and one atom of chlorine (Cl)
Elements, compounds, and mixtures= are identified and represented by chemical formulas
Periodic table of elements= presents and organs information about all the elements
Each element= has a box in the periodic table that contains information specific to that element
First letter= always capital in box of elements
Atomic number= identifies the number of protons in the nucleus of one atom of an element
Atomic mass= the weighted average of the masses of all the naturally occurring isotopes of an element
The periodic table= is a useful model that can help you understand the properties of elements
Horizontal row= in the table is called a period
Periods are numbered 1-7
Vertical row= in the table is called a group
Groups are numbered 1-18
Periods are numbered 1-7
Metals= more than 75% of the elements in the periodic table are metals
Metal properties= metals are usually shiny, malleable, ductile, and are usually slid at room temperature and good conductors of heat and electricity
Nonmetals= are elements that are not metals
Nonmetal properties= some are gases but the solid ones have these properties, usually dull in appearance, brittle, and poor conductors of heat and electricity
Metalloids= substances that have some characteristics of both metals and nonmetals
Metalloid properties= semi-conductors
Chemical property= characteristic that determines how a substance will interact with other substances during a chemical reaction
Observing chemicals= you cannot observe a chemical property of a substance without changing the substance
Reactivity= describes how likely an element is to react and form bonds with other elements
Ion= is an atom that has a positive or negative charge
Ions form= when atoms gain or lose electrons
Inert=unable to react chemically
Halogens=the most reactive nonmetals
Alkali Metals= the elements in group 1 of the periodic table, they are the most reactive metals
Alkaline-earth metals= the elements in group 2 of the periodic table, they are reactive but are less reactive than alkaline metals
Transition Metals= do not give away electrons as easily as atoms of the groups 1 and 2 metals do, making them less reactive then alkali and alkaline-earth metals
Boron Group= one metalloid and four metals, somewhat reactive
Carbon Group= one nonmetal, two metalloids and two metals reactivity varies amongst the elements
Nitrogen Group= two nonmetals, two metalloids and one metal varies among the elements
Oxygen Group= three nonmetals, one metalloid, and one metal reactive
Halogens= are very reactive nonmetals because of their atoms need to gain only one electron to have a complete outer level
Noble Gases= are unreactive nonmetals
Hydrogen= nonmetal that is reactive
Created by: PhySciLewis1