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Ch. 3 Earths Crust

Environmental Science

a dense, solid outer layer of Earth lithosphere
the 2 most common elements that make up the compounds of the lithosphere oxygen and silicon
as Earth cooled, water vapor in the atmosphere condensed to form the _____ oceans
the surface water, along with water that exists below ground, make up the layer called what? hydrosphere
a blanket of gases that covers the lithosphere and hydrosphere atmosphere
the layer that covers the mantle crust
3 examples of elements from minerals gold, copper, and carbon
4 examples of the more common minerals feldspar, mica, quartz, and calcite
minerals can be changed into different minerals by what 3 things? heat, pressure, or chemical processes
the hot, molten rock from Earth's interior magma
what does igneous rock contain? large interlocking crystals
magma that flows out onto Earth's surface during volcanic eruption lava
forms by the hardening and cementing of rock particles or fragments sedimentary rocks
form as heat and pressure from geologic processes deep within Earth change the composition of existing sedimentary and igneous rocks metamorphic rocks
a German scientist that proposed that all the continents had once been joined together as a single supercontinent Alfred Wegener
when all the continents had once been joined together as a single supercontinent pangaea
the German scientists name of the theory that all the continents had been a supercontinent continental drift
as the seafloor widened, the _______ on either side were pushed apart continents
a large system of underwater volcanic mountains which was called what mid-ocean ridge
a deep crack that runs along the crest of the mountains central rift valley
cracks in the Earth's crust along which movement has occured faults
a ship that drilled many cores of crustal rock form the seafloor on both sides of the mid-ocean ridge Glomar Challenger
rigid slabs of crustal rock that float on Earth's mantle plates
describes the interactions of the moving plates that make up Earth's crust plate tectonics
as North and South America continue to move westward, the Atlantic Ocean will widen as the Pacific Ocean narrows. what is this the work of? plate tectonics
the process by which the seafloor plunges through a trench into Earth's interior subduction
the trenches where crustal rock descends into the mantle subduction zones
they melt as they plunge deep into the subduction zones oceanic plates
were formed as the Indo-Australian plate collided with the Eurasian plate; still rising; are among the youngest mountains on Earth Himalaya Mountains
areas where plates move past each other in opposite directions transform boundaries
an example of a transform fault in California is what? San Andreas Fault
an opening in Earth's crust through which molten magma reaches the surface volcano
what volcanoes blast into the atmosphere when they erupt ash, dust, and gases
what are 2 well-known explosive volcanoes Mount Vesuvius and Mount St. Helens
when volcanoes are made of alternating layers of lava and ash, they are called what kind of volcanoes? composite volcanoes
an example of a composite volcano in the Indonesian island chain Krakatoa
a volcano formed when ash and cinders expelled from the volcano's opening mound up cinder cone volcano
volcanoes that ooze magma out of cracks, or vents, and from the crater in top shield volcanoes
a dormant volcano in northwest Washington State; it is the tallest peak in the Cascades, a chain of mountains that parallel the Pacific Coast Mount Rainier
spots in the mantle that are often responsible for hot springs and island chains hot spots
crustal movements along faults earthquakes
huge ocean waves or series of waves usually associated with an earthquake tsunamis
measures the shaking caused by an earthquake as recorded by a seismograph The Richter Scale
heated rocks that are 12-13 miles underneath the volcano thermal plume
a window to the center of the Earth volcano
what does a volcano do? rebuilds the planet's surface
the Earth of life began how long ago? 4 billion
here when life began at the bottom of the ocean hydrothermal vents
released from volcanoes and protects the Earth; released into the atmosphere carbon dioxide
the planet that had too much carbon dioxide Venus
protected the Earth from freezing over volcanoes
first colony of life on Earth; type of bacteria stromatalites
how many years ago when Earth started to cool? 700 million
what Earth was known as when it froze over snowball Earth
how many years ago when carbon dioxide was released from volcanoes to trap the heat 600 million
the temperature during the time of snowball earth -50*
what is the average temperature of the earth? 15* celsius
what is the most powerful type of volcano on earth ? subduction volcano
Created by: boydrac13