|The theory that morality is culturally determined ||Cultural Relativism|
|The Theory that there are no objectiv emoral truths, only feelings about moral behavior ||Ethical Subjectivism|
|The Theory that moral or ethical judgments are expression of attitudes not moral truths ||Emotivism|
|The theory that acting in your own self-interest is moral ||Ethical Egoism|
|The theory that it is natural to act exclusively in your own self-interest ||Psychological Egoism|
|Acting for the sake of others, regardless of self ||Altruism|
|States that people should be treated in the same way unless there is a relevant difference between them ||Principle of Equal Treatment|
|What is the study of the moral values and conduct of an individual, group, or culture? ||Ethics|
|Ethics is sometimes called ___________: it is employed to answer questions of morality. ||Moral Philosphy|
|How can morality be dfined? ||Morality can be defined as the right or wrong of an action, a decision, or a way of living|
|Who said this? " Moral Philosophy is the attempt to achieve a systematic understanding of the nature of morality and what it requires of us -- in Socrates's words, of how we ought to live, and why" ||James Rachels|
|Illegal or legal/Unethical or ethical: Stock brokers who "churn" stocks, repeatedly buying and selling stocks to gain personal commissions without the client's best interests in mind? ||Illegal and Unethical|
|Illegal/unethical etc.: Selling legal products ( for example, heavily sugared cerial ) to minors when their effects may be harmful ||Legal and Unethical
|Ethical/unethical legal etc.. Refusing to comply with the laws that mandate religious or racial discrimination ||Illegal and Ethical|
|gandian ethics ||practical wisdom|
|Moral Principle must be universalizable (Kant) ||One can will that everyone act according to it|
|Consistent with Kant on human autonomy and dignity || One should not strive to benefit from one's interaction with others|
|Consistent with Kant on human autonomy and dignity || It is wrong to treat others merely as tools to be used to attain a goal of maximum happiness|
|Consistent with Kant on human autonomy and dignity || People must recognize others' capacity to give or withhold consent|
|Inconsistent with Kant on human autonomy and dignity ||Respect for human dignity requires people to act to maximize their pleasure and minimize their pain|
|Inconsistent with Kant on human autonomy and dignity ||True autonomy results from acting according to desires, without regard to moral permissability|
|Who were the sophists? ||A group of speakers paid to give instruction on wisdom. They became known as being able to act wise without being wise|
|Socrates,Aristotle and Plato,: Who taught who? ||Socrates taught Plato, and Plato taught Aristotle|
|What is Socrates called commonly? ||The father of Philosophy|
|When and where did Socrates live? ||470-399 in Athens, Greece|
|Did Socrates write anything down? ||No, his student, Plato, kept a record of his teachings|
|What is the name of Socrates form of teaching? ||Socratic method-ask a series of questions to lead the other person(s) to the point wanted|
|Was Socrates a politician? ||No, though he was very involved in the Athens city government|
|What was the core of Socrates' philosophy? ||There is an absolute standard which applied to every man. By this standard all people would be judged after death in the afterlife.|
|What was Socrates belief about justness (morality)? ||The basics of right and wrong were larger than just one person, they also applied to society.|
|What did Socrates believe distinguished us humans from animals? ||The ability to reason and question our authorities and priciples and to rule our desires|
|What according to Socrates was worthless? ||the unexmamined life|
|How would one know how to be just according to Socrates? ||All sane people had the standard inately built into them. They knew and understood how to be virtuous. The unvirtuous were insane or ignorant. No one knowingly chooses to do wrong things.|
|Why was Socrates arrested? ||On charges of impiety and corrupting the youth|
|Who taught Plato? ||Socrates|
|When and where did Plato live? ||427-347 BC in Athens|
|What did Plato found? ||The "Academy". Accreditted as the first college in history. Founded in 380 BC|
|What was taught at the "Academy"? ||Math, Philisopy, and Science|
|What is the comperable terms for "just" when referring to Plato's and Aristoles' teachings? ||moral|
|What was Plato's greatest fear? ||People would be swung to follow the sophist view|
|What book did he write to combat the sophist view point? ||The Republic|
|Why was the book The Republic written? ||to explain why a person should be just|
|What was Plato's two reasons to be just according to The Republic? ||1. there are rewards and punishments in the afterlife resulting from our actions here 2. for its own sake|
|What was the four virtures of a perfect society? ||wisdom, courage, moderation, justice|
|What is the four virtures of a perfect person? ||wisdom, courage, moderation, justice|
|What did Plato associate with happiness? ||justice|
|What did Plato believe was the highest good for man? ||reason|
|What characteristics did Plato associate with the world of senses? ||unreal, fleeting, untrustworthy, evil|
|Why was reason the highest good for man? ||it was through reason you accessed the real world of ideas|
|What did Plato beleive happened when a person died? ||they were released from their body and from this world into a pure good one where they can study the true meanings and ideas. This was the reward of the just man|
|What was the name of the two worlds that Plato beleived existed? ||the World of Becoming and the World of Being|
|What was the world of Being? ||the true reality, a place of pure ideas. A world of forms|
|How did one access the World of Being? ||through reason and thought|
|What was the world of Becoming? ||This World, where everything is removed from reality.|
|What is a form according to Plato? ||The real thing from which we see shadows. The pure idea of something.|
|What happenes when a form in manifested? ||It is no longer reality because it can be seen, touched, tastes, felt, or smelt. It is an example of the form or idea|
|When were forms created? ||they never were, they existed before man and will after|
|What are the necessary qualities of forms? ||eternal, unchanging, unmoving, idivisible|
|gandian ethics ||practical wisdom|
|Jaina ethics ||non harming|
|hindu ethics ||self restraint or self sacrifice|
|christ against culture ||other worldly pietism|
|christ of culture ||casts gospel glow|
|christ & culture in paradox ||separates kind rule from stern public rule|
|christ above culture ||control over public life|
|christ tranforming culture ||influence but not control|
|Kant ||retributivism (eye for an eye)|
|Bentham ||utilitaianism (what makes the most people happy)|
|deontological ||duties to people or god|
|simple subjectivism ||moral language|
|ethical subjectivism ||moral opinions|
|natural law ||1. everything in nature has a purpose 2.how things ought to be 3.based on reason|
|Earliest ethical writing ||Mesopotaiman legend of Gilamesh|
|Socrates ||rational; what you think is right, is right|
|sophists ||encouraged relativism and skepticism|
|Aristotle ||virtue ethics|
|utilitarianism ||judged on consequences, what makes the most people happy|
|State of Nature ||How philosophers think persons would naturally behave if there were no government threatening to punish them|
|Thomas Hobbes and the modern social contract theory ||people are naturally competitive and need government to contain their natural strive for security (preventing murders and such)|
|Basic argument (Hobbes) for an ethics based on a social contract ||Hobbes crucial first argument is that before society existed, there was ￢ﾀﾜthe state of nature￢ﾀﾝ. held that this lawless state was a time of everyone for themselves.|
|Weaknesses of Utilitarianism ||1. Utilitarianism runs into problems when sentiment is involved. 2. Doesn't provide enough support for individual's rights. 3. That happiness (etc) cannot be quantified or measured. 4. That we cannot calculate all the effects for all the individual|
|Strengths of Utilitarianism ||1.The poor under-educated lower classes should count equally with the rich, educated upper class. 2.Bentham utilitarian theory came directly out of his social concerns.|
|Deontological ||Duty based. Focuses on your duties, whether they be to other people, to animals or to God.|
|What type of moral theory is Kant￢ﾀﾙs ||Deontological|
|According to Kant morality is about? ||Following absolute rules without exception|
|According to Kant some of our basic duties are ||1. Always tell the truth 2. Always keep you promises. 3. Never commit suicide.|
|Duty ||Something that you are required to do whether you want to or not|
|Good Will ||Kant believed it is the only thing that is totally and completely good without exception|
|Categorical Imperative ||A moral obligation that is imposed on us no matter the circumstances or our personal desires|
|Autonomy ||Being in control of your own life|
|Kant's two formulas of the catergorical imperative ||1. Universally willing the maxim of your actions or taking the standpoint of everyone else 2. Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or that of another, always as an end and never as a means only.|
|Retributivism ||A theory of punishment that is best summed up by the phrase an eye for an eye.|
|Identify the major points critical of Kant's ethics ||1. Consequentialism 2. Jeremy Bentham's Utilitarianism theory (attempt to create as much happiness in the world as possible)|
|Consequentialism ||Ethical theory that determines good or bad, right or wrong, based on the outcomes.|
|What are the difference between retributiviam (Kant) and Utilitarian (Betham) ||Kant believed an eye for an eye. Betham believes punishment is mischief and is a greater evil but is justifiable.|
|Moral Objectivism ||Belief that morality is universal, eternal and unchanging|
|Cultural relativism ||Belief that morality is relative to each individual culture, we can￢ﾀﾙt make universal moral claims like ￢ﾀﾜmurder is always wrong￢ﾀﾝ|
|Main premise of the cultural differences arguement for moral relativism ||Different societies have opposing moral standards|
|Shared cultural practice by all societies ||Caring for the young|
|Not-shared cultural practice by all societies ||Not eating beef|
|Shared cultural practice by all societies ||Not commiting murder|
|Shared cultural practice by all societies ||Telling the truth|
|Not-shared cultural practice by all societies ||Not commiting infanticide|
|Reflects theory of Cultural Relativism ||discourages intolerance of differing moral codes|
|Reflects theory of Cultural Relativism ||questions unreasoned assumptions about right and wrong|
|Reflects theory of Cultural Relativism ||encourages people to separate personal feelings from moral judgements|
|The essential revision to Simple Subjectivism offered by Emotivism ||Moral language is used to influence people's behavior|
|Psychological Egoist's interpretation of human motivation ||actions that appear to be altruistic are motivated by self-interest|
|Psychological Egoist's interpretation of human motivation ||actions are expressions of what makes one feel good|
|Psychological Egoism suggests motivates all human action ||people will do what they most want to do|
|Psychological Egoism suggests motivates all human action ||People will do the things necessary in order to feel good|
|Claim against Ethical Egoism ||unjustifyably claims that ones individual's interest are more important than the interests of other people|
|Claim against Ethical Egoism ||incorrectly assumes that all moral judgements are the products of logic|
|Claim against Ethical Egoism ||Cannot help people resolve conflics among their interests|
|Six values that all cultures have in common ||1. Truthfulness 2. Prohibition of murder 3. Tolerable of other cultures 4. Mix of good and bad practices. 5. Welfare of cultural members. 6. Care of young.|
|Cultural relativism in terms of the cultural differences argument ||1. Different societies have different moral codes 2. Moral code determines what is right within that society. 3. No objective standard can be used to judge one's societal code as better than another. 4. Moral code of our own society has no special|
|Ethical Subjectivism ||Moral judgments are nothing more than expressions of personal opinion|
|Psychological egoism ||1. Theory of human nature, not an ethical theory. 2. Human nature to act out of self-interest.|
|Ethical egoism ||How we should behave|
|Hero stories ||Earliest known writings about heroes who exemplified virtues most admired|
|Legal codes ||Earliest know writings that defined acceptable and non-acceptable conduct and instructional formulations|
|Ethics in ancient Mesopotamia ||Value concepts can be discerned from commercial documents, law codes, wisdom sayings, hero stories and myths.|
|Royal Archives ||Earliest know writings provide the boasts of monarchs who conquered and often devastated neighboring territories.|
|Gigamesh, King of Uruk ||One of the earliest monarchs was said to be the product of the union of a high priest and the goddess Ninsun.|
|Work ethic ||One fulfils ones destiny through service and through fidelity to whatsoever becomes ones responsibility.|
|The law code of Semitic King Lipit Ishtar ||One of several early royal prescriptions recovered by archeologists. Each ruler declared that he was divinely chosen for office, thereby linking earthly rule to divine wishes.|
|The book of the Dead ||Earliest known writings contains a negative confession in which the deceased recited before a panel of 42 divine judges a list of 42 sins no committed.|
|Hebrew scriptures ||One of the earliest known writings ￢ﾀﾓ Bible|
|School documents ||One of the earliest known writings|
|Aristotle's theory ||Involves a virtuous way of life by its relation to happiness|
|Key element of Aristotle(2) ||1)highest happinessnot in the ethical virtues of active life, but contemplative or philosophic life of speculation, in which the dianoetic virtues of understanding, science and wisdom are exercise.2)Happiness not identical to pleasure|
|Virtue ||Moral excellence, or having the courage to do what is right.|
|Ethical egoism ||Each person ought to do whatever will best promote his or her own self-interest|
|Utilitarianism ||We ought to do whatever will promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.|
|Advantage to Virtue Ethics ||moral motivation|
|Advantage to Virtue Ethics ||doubts about the "ideal" of impartiality|
|Disadvantages to Virtue Ethics ||an adequate theory of ethics must provide an understanding of moral character|
|Disadvantages to Virtue Ethics ||Incomplete - emphasizes moral virutes/neglects ideas of character|
|Disadvantages to Virtue Ethics ||All actions do not fit neatly into a virtue|
|Divine Command Theory ||Dilemma: Concept of morality is mysterious|
|Divine Command Theory ||Dilemma: The concept of morality makes God's commands arbitrary|
|Divine Command Theory ||Dilemma: This conception of morality provides the wrong reasons for moral principles|
|Divine Command Theory ||Supports the idea that God is a lawgiver, bud does not compel us to obey him|
|Divine Command Theory ||We are free agents|
|Divine Command Theory ||Supports that an act is right if God commands it, wrong if he forbids it|
|Theory of Natural Law ||Rests on an idea of what world should be like|
|Theory of Natural Law ||Idea that everything in nature has a purpose|
|Theory of Natural Law ||World is rational in order with values|
|Theory of Natural Law ||How things ought to be|
|Theory of Natural Law ||Laws of reason which we are able to grasp because God has made us rational beings|
|Social Contract Theory ||Thomas Hobbes|
|Social Contract Theory ||moral rules need to benefit social living|
|Social Contract Theory ||altruism/moral facts are key to understanding ethics: Not God|
|Social Contract Theory ||Morality consists in the set of rules, govererning behavior, that rational people will accept, on the condtion that others accept them as well|
|Advantages of the Social Contract Theory ||Morally binding rules are ones that facilitate harmonious social living|
|Advantages of the Social Contract Theory ||We agree to follow the rules because it is to our advantage to live in a society in which the rules are accepted|
|Advantages of the Social Contract Theory ||reciprocity|
|Advantages of the Social Contract Theory ||impartiality|
|Disadvantages to the Social Contract Theory ||we did not agree to it, our ancestors did, and we should not be excpected to uphold their contracts|
|Disadvantages to the Social Contract Theory ||acceptance of the rules is based on others agreeing to them|
|Utlitarianism - Strength ||the poor, undeucated should count equally with the rich|
|Utlitarianism - Strength ||theory came directly out of social concerns|
|Utilitariansim - Weakness ||runs into problems when sentimente is involved|
|Utilitariansim - Weakness ||Not enough support for individual rights|
|Utilitariansim - Weakness ||happiness cannot be measured|
|Utilitariansim - Weakness ||cannot calculate all the effects for all the people|
|Ethical egoism, strength ||one's duty is to promote one's self interest|
|Ethical egoism, strength ||not necessarily bad if actions benefit others|
|Ethical egoism, strength ||ought to do what is in our own best self interest|
|Ethical egoism, weakness ||endorses wicked actions, provided they benefit person who does them|
|Ethical egoism, weakness ||cannot handle conflict of interests|
|Ethical egoism, weakness ||logically inconsistent|
|Ethical egoism, weakness ||unacceptably arbirtrary|
Moral philosophers who are skeptical about the primate origins of human morality argue that:
non-human primates can not consciously and rationally select right from wrong
comparisons between humans and other primates are inherently flawed
||non-human primates can not consciously and rationally select right from wrong|
The Epic of Gilgamesh is:
one of the earliest legal codes.
a long poem from ancient Mesopotamia recounting legends and myths about a hero-king.
guidelines for ethical behavior in ancient Egypt.
none of the above
||a long poem from ancient Mesopotamia recounting legends and myths about a hero-king.|
|Who Said:The many are related to the One (Water)
|Who Said:The source of all matter is the indeterminate boundless; it is indestructible and has eternal motion ||Anaximander|
|Who Said:Air is the primary substance; differences in quality and quantity explain why things appear to be different ||Anaximenes|
|Who Said:All things are numbers; there is a numerical basis for all things possessing shape and size
Developed the concept of form ||Pythagoras
|Who Said:Fire basic element to all matter;condition of fire is change which explains why forms change;all things are in flux; change is unity in diversity
Change is the product of God’s universal Reason;Reason as a universal law immanent in all things ||Heraclitus
|Who Said:Change and diversity are an illusion. Matter is a single substance that is motionless and shaped in a sphere
Who Said:Distinguishes between appearance and truth: appearance produces opinion, reality produces truth ||Parmenides|
|Who Said:The four paradoxes reveal that motion has no clear definition and is a relative concept
Who Said:There is only one being, continuous, material and motionless
||Zeno (Parmenides’ student)|
|Who Said:The many are the changeless and eternal; objects can change but the particles of which they are made are changeless ||Empedocles|
|Who Said:Particles are made up of the four elements and their mixture accounts for the appearance of change ||Empedocles|
|Who Said:Nature’s two forces love and hate impact on the mixture of elements creating the cycle of Harmony to Discord. ||Empedocles|
|Who Said:Distinguished between Mind and matter; Mind is everywhere; it is separate from matter ||Anaxagoras|
|Who Said:All things consist of atoms which move in empty space ||Democritus and Leucippus|
|Who Said:Space is a receptacle which can be empty or full ||Democritus and Leucippus|
|Who Said:Atoms are indestructible, eternal and in constant motion ||Democritus and Leucippus|
|Who Said:Nature consists of only two things: space and atoms ||Democritus and Leucippus|
|Who Said: Two forms of knowledge: trueborn and illegitimate ||Democritus and Leucippus|
The pre-Socratic philosophers were primarily concerned with:
how the mind works
the natural physical order of the world
||the natural physical order of the world|
Which Greek thinker was known as the "laughing philosopher?"
"Man is the measure of all things" is a sentiment held by:
|| the Sophists|
Which of the following beliefs is contrary to Socrates' approach to morality?
Striving for good is the condition of all humans
The soul is a person's conscious personality
Morality is the matter of true knowledge
Might makes right
||Might makes right|
Plato believed that there were universals or essences, which he called the:
According to Plato, our spirits have three parts. What are they?
reason, spirit, and appetite
temperance, spirit, and appetite
reason, courage, and appetite
reason, spirit, and beauty
||reason, spirit, and appetite|
|Plato's four main virtues:
|and Aristotle's additions to plato's four main virtues:
Aristotle's ethics are:
influenced by his observations of nature
based in part on Plato's theory
a refutation of some of Plato's theory
all of the above
||all of the above|
Aristotle believed that humans should behave:
based on the laws of nature
based on Plato’s philosophy
based on the Golden Mean
based on the needs of the community
||based on the Golden Mean|
|This Greek philosophical school valued courage and acceptance of one's role in live.
|This Greek philosophical school argued that the greatest good comes from the pursuit of pleasure. ||Epicureanism|
|This Greek philosophical school maintained that human knowledge was limited and uncertain. ||Skepticism
|This Greek philosophical school believed that salvation could be found in a mystical union with God.
|A School of philosophy that sees achieving pleasure and peace of mind as the greatest good ||Epicureanism|
|An Ethical approach that stresses moral character in contrast to moral actions ||Virtue Ethics|
|The hypothetical rulers of Plato's ideal city-state ||Philosopher Kings|
|The Essences of various objects or things ( in platonic thought) ||The Forms|
|The right or wrong of an action, decision or way of living ||Morality|
|A school of philosophy that questions the certainty of human knowledge and calls for continued inquiry after truth ||Skepticism|
|The Beliefe that knowledge is virtue and morality is the matter of true knowledge ||Socratic Philosophy|
|The Desirable middle ethical course between two extremes ||The Golden Mean|
|A School of philosophy that advocates control of one's passions and acceptance of one's destiny ||Stoicism|
|The study of the moral values and conduct of an individual group or culture ||Ethics|
|One the earliest legal codes, established by the king of Babylonia, offering guidelines for conduct and listing crimes and their various punishments ||Hammurabi's Code|
|An Egyption text that described the proper conduct needed for a happy afterlife ||Book of the Dead|
|This text includes an ethical and theological framework for life, including the Ten Commandments.
C)the Legend of Gilgamesh.
D)the Book of the Dead.
|This early Greek philosopher stressed the value of "cheerfulness" and moderation: ||Democritus|
|The pre-Socratic philosophers are important because they: ||all of the above|
|The Sophists argued for a philosophy based on: ||self-interest|
|Socrates believed that: ||All of the above.|
|Plato thought that if we practiced the virtues, we could achieve:
|For Plato, a state would be just if it were ruled by: ||A king trained in moral philosophy.|
|Aristotle's ethics were founded on the: ||Golden Mean|
|Aristotle's list of virtues: ||includes Plato's four main virtues of Courage, Justice, Temperance and Wisdom.|
|This Greek school of philosophy maintained that the greatest good comes from the pursuit of pleasure. ||Epicureanism
|Self-control and fortitude are a way of mastering destructive emotions, according to the ___________. ||Stoics|
|An Egyptian text that described the proper conduct needed for a happy afterlife is: ||The Book of the Dead|
|What is religion? ||An organized system of believes regarding the spirtual or metaphysical world, gernerally offering a moral code, and a philospohy of life.|
|Religions often provide their followers with a series of codified beliefs including: ||Sacred writings or texts, Worship practices, including important ceremonies and rituals, theology that seeks to explain the nature of god, the reasons for existence, the afterlife. Code of morality or religouse law.|
|the idea that morality is whatever God (or the gods) command. God's will becomes the foundation of ethics. ||Divine Command Theory|
|Advantage or Disadvantage of Divine Command Theory: It offers an objective metaphysical foundation for morality. ||Advantage|
|Advantage or Disadvantage of Divine Command Theory: It answers the question why be moral? ( To please god to avoid punishment, gain reward) ||Advantage|
|Advantage or Disadvantage of Divine Command Theory: It Requires God's Existence be accepted to give his commands authority, and/or that a given text or scripture be proven divine ||Dis-advantage|
|It allows for the possiblity of abhorrent acts because divine command theory is an abitrary morality, bases solely on Gods'commands ( and what if God commands torture? ) ||Dis-advantage|
|It encorages self-sacrifice, which might otherwise not occur, in response to God's commands. ||Advantage|
|It is not the only source of morality (people choose other theories or approaches ) which suggessts that morality is not exclusively what God wills ||Dis Advantage|
Divine Command Theory states that:
God (or gods) determine(s) what is morally right and wrong
Moral law is based on human tradition
Moral law is based on rational, universal principles
Moral law must be founded on a monotheistic basis
||God (or gods) determine(s) what is morally right and wrong|
|Which is NOT considered an advantage of Divine Command Theory?
It offers an objective standard for morality
It encourages self-sacrifice
It depends on believing in God or accepting an inerrant sacred text
It provides a reason for morality
||It depends on believing in God or accepting an inerrant sacred text|
___________________ is the belief that a soul can be reborn into a new body after death.
|A ___________________religion melds and fuses beliefs from other religious traditions into its own theology and ethics.
none of the above
|What are the three parts of Natural Law. ||Everything in nature exists for Reason
How Things Are and How they ought to be
Acceptance of Reason as God-Given and Part of the natural law|
|A System where God's will becomes the foundation of Morality ||The Divine command Theory|
|A System based on Universal laws and principles found in the natural order from which the norms of all human behavior must be derived ||Natural Law|
|A confucian Guide to proper human behavior ||Five Great Relationships|
|Buddhist Sacred Writings ||Muhayana sutras|
|A Belief of many eastern religions that our soul lives Multiple lifetimes Being reborn after death ||Reincarnation|
|Islamic Sacred Writing ||Qur'an|
|Islamic guide to proper human behavior ||Five Pillars|
|Rabbinic Religious Law ||Halakhah|
|Islamic Religious law ||Sharia|
|Religions that believe in one God ||Monetheism|
|Christian guide to proper behavior ||Golden Rule|
|Divine Moral imperatives given to the prophet moses ||The Ten Commandments|
|Natural law theory maintains:
A)The world is inherently rational and there is a natural order to things.
B)The world is inherently irrational.
C)Humans can not understand the reasoning behind natural law.
D)Chaos theory allows us to fashion moral l ||The world is inherently rational and there is a natural order to things.|
|One problem with Divine Command Theory is that:
A)because it is arbitrary, it could allow for abhorrent commands.
B)it provides objective standards for morality.
C)it encourages believers to practice what they preach.
D)all of the above. ||because it is arbitrary, it could allow for abhorrent commands.|
|Monotheistic religions believe in:
A)heaven and hell.
B)angels and demons.
D)all of the above.
|The Catholic church relies on _____________ for standards of behavior:
D)None of the above.
|Eastern religions differ from Western religions because:
A)there are no real moral rules.
B)they are ruled by superstition.
C)there often is no overseeing organized hierarchy.
D)they have few sacred texts as guides to moral behav ||there often is no overseeing organized hierarchy.|
|religions view abortion immoral
A)believe it violates God's commandment against killing.
B)believe that it is inconsistent with natural law.
C)believe a woman's right to choose is more important.
D)they believe a woman's right to privacy comes firs ||they believe it violates God's commandment against killing.|
|The Confucian guide to proper human behavior is called:
A)the Five Pillars.
B)the Five Commandments.
C)the Five Great Relationships.
D)the Five Steps to Enlightenment.
||the Five Great Relationships.|
|The most sacred holy text for Islam is:
B)the Five Classics.
C)the New Testament.
|The belief of many Eastern religions that our soul lives multiple lifetimes, being reborn after death, is called:
|Buddhism and Jainism share the belief that:
A)there are many gods.
B)there is no God.
C)there is rebirth and karma.
D)ancestors should be venerated.
||there is no God.|
|One of the world's oldest religions is:
|religious see economic inequality as immoral:
A)not fair that some have more than others.
B)runs counter to Golden Rule divine notion of universal brotherhood and justice.
C)runs counter to human reason.
D)encourages greed and discourages charity. ||it runs counter to the Golden Rule and the divine notion of universal brotherhood and justice.
Under Social Contract Theory, rulers serve:
by the consent of the governed
by the will of God
by natural selection
by accumulating power
||by the consent of the governed|
Social Contract Theory is based on:
the greatest good for the greatest number
the idea of reciprocity
||the idea of reciprocity|
|Strength or Weakness of Social Contract: Constructs moral rules for harmonious living
|Strength or Weakness of social contract:No clear or consistent definition of what is a moral rule or law ||Weakness|
|Strength or Weakness of social contract: Constructs moral rules that are in our best interests to follow, which is an added benefit
|Strength or Weakness of Social Contract: Rational people will not create rules that are too difficult or impossible to live by
|Strength or Weakness of a social contract: Does not resolve the question as to how much are we bound by laws of society
|Strength or Weakness of a social contract: Allows people to live together in a moral world of limited altruism
|Strength or Weakness of a social contract: Does not address moral claims of those outside the social contract (for example, infants, mentally impaired people, animals)
|What is Empiricism? ||is a philosophical doctrine that says all knowledge is derived from our senses.|
- The scope of our knowledge is limited by our perceptions and our reason
- Ideas do not have reality
- There is an absolute existence of unthinking things ||George Berkeley|
- Brings empiricism to its purest form
- Impressions are necessary to ideas
- All ideas are associated with each other
- Our thinking cannot extend beyond our immediate senses
- Morality must be demonstrable
- It is based on pleasure or pain
- Moral good and evil represent the conformity or disagreement of our voluntary actions to law
- Three kinds of law: law of opinion (happiness); civic law (virtue); divine law (law of moral rectitude)
- We can know divine law through reason or revelation
- Argues proof of God and that insights we have come through Him
- God's order of the world comes to us through our perceptions
- Moral judgments are formed through feelings more than reason
- Virtue and vice exist through our feelings, not in the actions themselves
This British philosopher argued that we can know divine law through reason or revelation.
This British philosopher argued that everything that exists in our minds has to have an outside reality.
|What is Utilitarianism ||Utilitarianism is the ethical theory constructed around the reasoning that the greatest good for the greatest number is the only criterion for creating morality.|
John Stuart Mill's refinement of Utilitarianism focused on the idea of:
the quality of happiness
the quantity of happiness
achieving God's divine will
knowledge derived from science
||the quality of happiness|
That metaphysical speculation held no validity was a position held by:
John Stuart Mill
|Why is the following an objection to Utilitarian Ethics:
Utilitarianism wrongly elevates pleasure above other values. ||Maximizing pleasure should not be the overriding value in human existence.|
|Why is the following an Objection of Utilitarian Ethics:
Utilitarianism ignores distributive justice. ||Utilitarianism doesn't necessarily distribute happiness to those who "deserve" to be happy, or to all in a society.|
|Why is the following an Objection of utilitarian Ethics:
Utilitarianism wrongly assumes that ends justify the means. ||Utilitarianism would allow for immoral actions (the means) in order to achieve the Greatest Good.|
|Why is the following an Objection to Utilitarian ethics:
Utilitarianism requires too much calculation. ||It is impractical to calculate the utility of every option and outcome as Utilitarianism would require.|
|A philosphical approach that establishes government and a society's moral code by consent. ||Social Contract Theory|
|A Measurement of the utility and potential of happiness of given actions ||Hedonic Calculus|
|A Philosophical Approach that says all knowlege is derived from our senses ||Empiricism|
|Genuin knowledge is acquired only by science and that metaphysical speculation has no validity ||Positivism|
|The Greatest good for the Greatest number is the criterion for morality ||Utilitarianism|
|British philosopher largely responsible for Social Contract Theory ||Thomas Hobbes|
|A philosphical Approach that says Morality should be judged by outcomes ||Consequentialism|
|British Philospher largely responsible for utilitarianism ||Jeremy Bentham|
|Social Contract Theory is based on: ||people giving up some of their natural rights to a government in exchange for social order.|
|Which of the following is likely to be used as an argument against abortion and the death penalty?
A)The act benefits people
B)Slippery slope argument.
C)Sanctity of life.
D)Greatest good for greatest number of people.
||Sanctity of life.|
|Rational people will not create rules that are too difficult or impossible to live by is a tenet of:
C)Social Contract Theory
D)Divine Command Theory
||Social Contract Theory|
|Which of the following is not one of the three kinds of laws outlined by John Locke?
A)Law of opinion.
|Empiricism maintains that:
A)humans are born with innate knowledge.
B)humans are not born with innate knowledge.
C)humans should follow divine rules.
D)human reason is unlimited.
||humans are not born with innate knowledge.|
|David Hume argued:
)moral judgments are formed through feelings more than reason.
B)moral judgments are formed through reason more than feelings.
C)certain moral actions contain the essence of goodness.
D)certain moral actions contain the essence of e ||moral judgments are formed through feelings more than reason.|
|Utilitarianism is consequentialist moral philosophy becaus:
judges morality on the basis of the means, not the ends.
judges morality on the basis of the ends, not the means.
is based on absolute rules.
establishes strict definitions of universal moral ||it judges morality on the basis of the ends, not the means.|
|This was an attempt to measure and evaluate the utility of any moral action.
B)Bentham's Hedonic Calculus.
C)Mill's notion of "higher happiness."
||Bentham's Hedonic Calculus.|
|Comte's Positivism relied on:
A)the greater good principle.
|Critics of Utilitarianism argue:
A)Maximizing pleasure should not be the overriding value in human existence.
B)is impractical to calculate the utility of every option and outcome as Utilitarianism requires.
C)ignores distributive justice.
D)All abo ||All of the above|
|the <blank> you have a desire to do or have something.In order to achieve the desire you have a series of oughts: non-moral actions that will get you what you wish to achieve.is not necessary for you to will that everyone does or desires what you desire. ||hypothetical imperative|
The hypothetical imperative is:
a moral law
based on desire
is understood through reason
is about conflict
||based on desire|
According to Kant, the categorical imperative:
is something every rational person should accept
tells us if a particular action is morally permissible
is to be willed as an act for everyone
all of the above
||all of the above|
|<blank> allow us to be moral agents whose conduct is guided by universal laws. Kant's rigidity on the universal law against lying suggests that he believes that any variation from this framework of <Blank> would harm his system of ethics and morality. ||Absolute Rules|
Kant’s reason for making an absolute rule against lying is:
lying harms one’s dignity as a human being
lying is self-defeating
it’s impossible to know the consequences of actions
all the above
||all the above|
|philosophers argue that absolute rules do not work because:
if two rules apply In situation they conflict
following the rule can sometimes bring about bad consequences
is implausible to allow no exceptions to the rule
is hard to use them with consist || it is implausible to allow no exceptions to the rule|
|An absolute and universal moral demand or obligation founded on reasoning ||Categorical Imperative|
|An Action conditioned on some goal or desire ||Hypothetical Imperative|
|A formal Principle ||Maxim|
|Ethical theories that maintain that the moral rightness or wrongness of an action depends on its intrinsic qualities and not on its practical consequences ||Deontological Ethics|
|An Action that people are required to perform; the practical content of a moral obligation ||Duty|
|The applicability of a moral rule to all ||Universalizability|
|A moral demaind or obligation with no exceptions; actions based on this rule are always right (or wrong ) independently of any further considerations ||Absolute Rule|
|The unconditioned esteem and respect that all people should receive just in virtue of being human and rational ||Dignity|
Kant believes that the guilty will their punishments through:
The Hypothetical Imperative
Bentham’s Utilitarian theory of punishment primarily seeks to:
improve the lives of prisoners
According to Kant a duty-driven action is more valuable than acts performed through:
sympathy and compassion
all of the above
||all of the above|
Kant’s ethics primarily concern:
art and culture
human self determination and freedom
human manners and tastes
the consequences of moral actions
||human self determination and freedom|
|According to Kant, the categorical imperative is:
A)whatever you choose to do.
B)a universal law.
C)a way of finding out what's best for yourself.
||a universal law.|
|Act according to that maxim by which you be universal law is:
about desiring something and working toward it.
an idea that can be used to better other's behavior.
a way of analyzing what is a moral obligation.
a definition of the hypothetical imperat ||a way of analyzing what is a moral obligation.|
|In Kant's view, being a moral agent means:
A)asking, "How does this concern me?" before deciding to act.
B)lying only when absolutely necessary.
C)guiding your conduct by universal laws.
D)living by the rules of your church.
||guiding your conduct by universal laws.|
|reason that somephilosophers argue that rules need not be regarded as absolute is:
A)We can violate them for good reasons that we all accept.
B)Consistency is irrational and humans are irrational.
C)We can just agree to disagree.
D)None of the abov ||We can violate them for good reasons that we all accept.|
|Kant associates dignity with:
A)The categorical imperative.
B)The value of reason.
C)The hypothetical imperative.
||The value of reason.|
|For Kant, moral goodness at the highest level exists if:
A)We act in a dignified way.
B)We obey our religion's rules.
C)We consciously act from good will.
D)We value means above all else.
||We consciously act from good will.|
|Kant's theory of punishment is primarily concerned with:
A)manipulation and rehabilitation
B)justice and morality
C)welfare and society
D)good versus evil
||justice and morality|
|From a Kantian perspective, putting a murderer to death:
A)harms human dignity
B)respects human dignity
||respects human dignity|
|Absolute rules have been criticized, in part, because they:
A)can be harmful to animals.
B)do not address negative consequences of an action.
C)are impossible follow.
D)are not really moral.
||do not address negative consequences of an action.|
|According to Kant's critics, universal laws work:
D)none of the above
|_____ is the view that morality (behavior which is right and wrong) is culturally determined. ||Cultural Relativism|
|Cultural Relativism wrongly accepts cultural moral norms uncritically. ||Critisism|
|Cultural Relativism values tolerance and the acceptance of cultural differences more than the happiness and welfare of people. ||Criticism|
|Cultural Relativism ignores the role of moral development in societies (and people). ||Criticism|
|Cultural Relativism prematurely rejects the possibility that there are universal rights, including basic human rights, that should apply to all cultures.
Would a Cultural Relativist say this?
"No society should ever accept murder."
||No, This statement does not align with Cultural Relativism, as it suggests there are univeral moral standards.|
Would a Cultural Relativist say this?
"We should pay our taxes, obey the law, and adhere to the morality of our people."
||Yes, this statement aligns with Cultural Relativism, which suggests we should conform to the moral norms of the society we are living in.|
Would a Cultural Relativist say this?
"When in Rome do, as the Romans do."
||Yes, this statement aligns with Cultural Relativism.|
Would a Cultural Relativist say this?
"Isn't it time to ban bullfighting, a "sport" where an innocent life is sacrificed for the entertainment of humans?"
||No, This statement differs from Cultural Relativism, as it judges a society's moral practice.|
Would a Cultural Relativist say this?
"I personally oppose polygamy, but it's a facet of Arab culture."
||Yes, this statement does align with Cultural Relativism.|
Would a Cultural Relativist say this?
"What look like differences in morality from society to society really aren't--the Golden Rule, written or unwritten, has always been the basis for human ethics."
||yes, This statement does not align with Cultural Relativism, as it suggests there are universal moral standards.|
James Rachels argues that universal values allow us to:
judge the moral codes of other cultures
change the moral codes of other cultures
identify the cultural variables in a given society
all of the above
||judge the moral codes of other cultures|
|Cultural Relativists would reject the Un's Universal Declaration of Human Rights Because:
is intolerant of existing cultural practices
claims there is one moral standard for all cultures
claims there is an objective standard for morality
all Above ||all of the above|
|<Blank> denies there are objective moral truths, instead holding that we only have feelings about acts and behavior. Consequently, this theory holds, our feelings define our moral judgments. ||Ethical Subjectivism|
|agrees that there are no objective moral truths; it further argues that when we make moral or ethical judgments we are expressing our own attitudes and looking to influence and change the moral actions of others. ||Emotivism|
A follower of Ethical Subjectivism would argue that "X is right" really means:
"X is socially acceptable"
"X is a universally-held moral principle"
"I like X"
"X is reasonable"
||"I like X|
One difference between Emotivism and Ethical Subjectivism is that:
Emotivism endorses objective moral truths
Emotivism accepts univeral values
Emotivism focuses on attitudes, not feelings
None of the above
||Emotivism focuses on attitudes, not feelings|
|What is the philosophic belief approach that acting in your own self-interest is moral. ||Ethical Egoism is the philosophic belief approach that acting in your own self-interest is moral.|
Psychological Egoism sees:
acting in self-interest as moral
acting in self-interest as a natural human instinct
acting in self-interest as a logical condition
all of the above
||acting in self-interest as a natural human instinct|
Ethical Egoism rejects:
Resolving differences through compromise
The Principle of Equal Treatment
all of the above
||all of the above|
|The Theory that morality is culturally determined ||Cultural Relativism|
|The Theory that it is natural to act exclusively in your own self-interest ||Psychological Egoism|
|The Theory that there are no objective moral truths, only feelings about moral behavior ||Ethical Subjectivism|
|Acting for the sake of others, regardless of self. ||altruism|
|The theory that moral or ethical judgments are expression of attitudes not moral truths. ||Emotivism|
|States that people should be treated in the same way unless there is a relevant difference between them. ||Principle of equal treatment|
|The theory that acting in your own self interest is moral. ||Ethical Egoism|
|Cultural relativism argues it is arrogant to question another culture's morality because:
there is no moral rule that is universally correct.
there are moral laws that are universally correct.
some moral codes are better than others.
all of the ab ||there is no moral rule or law that is universally correct.|
|That rules against murder and lying appear across human cultures is an argument for:
B)universal moral values.
D)contingent moral values.
||universal moral values.|
|Ethical Subjectivism maintains that ____________ define our moral judgments, not objective moral truths.
|Which of the statements about Emotivism is true?
A)maintains that there are objective moral truths.
B)argues that feelings determine our moral judgments.
C)looks to universal values for moral truth.
D)argues that attitudes determine our moral judgmen ||Emotivism argues that attitudes determine our moral judgments.|
|This philosopher articulated the rationale for Ethical Egoism.
|According to James Rachels, a flaw of Ethical Egoism is that it violates:
A)the Golden Mean.
B)the Principle of Equal Treatment.
C)Divine Command Theory.
D)None of the above.
||the Principle of Equal Treatment.|
|philosophers reason that we should be allowed to judge other cultures because:
||all cultures share some basic moral values, suggesting a standard for establishing universal morality.|
|Some scholars believe that Ethical Egoism is the foundation for _____________, a political philosophy which emphasizes personal liberty above collective social interests.
|A major flaw of Ethical Subjectivism:
A)it stems from the thinking of Scottish philosopher David Hume.
B)it maintains that our feelings define our moral judgments.
C)it fails to establish some objective standard for judging moral correctness.
D)nonea ||it fails to establish some objective standard for judging moral correctness.|
|The _______________ states that people should be treated in the same way unless there is a relevant difference between them.
C)Principle of Equal Outcomes
D)Principle of Equal Treatment
||Principle of Equal Treatment|
|In James Rachels' ethical theory, humans become _____________ in a __________________.
A)moral agents; immoral society
B)moral agents; moral community
C)ethicists; moral community
D)moral agents; ethical community
||moral agents; moral community|