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Dave's Ethics Stack

QuestionAnswer
The theory that morality is culturally determined Cultural Relativism
The Theory that there are no objectiv emoral truths, only feelings about moral behavior Ethical Subjectivism
The Theory that moral or ethical judgments are expression of attitudes not moral truths Emotivism
The theory that acting in your own self-interest is moral Ethical Egoism
The theory that it is natural to act exclusively in your own self-interest Psychological Egoism
Acting for the sake of others, regardless of self Altruism
States that people should be treated in the same way unless there is a relevant difference between them Principle of Equal Treatment
What is the study of the moral values and conduct of an individual, group, or culture? Ethics
Ethics is sometimes called ___________: it is employed to answer questions of morality. Moral Philosphy
How can morality be dfined? Morality can be defined as the right or wrong of an action, a decision, or a way of living
Who said this? " Moral Philosophy is the attempt to achieve a systematic understanding of the nature of morality and what it requires of us -- in Socrates's words, of how we ought to live, and why" James Rachels
Illegal or legal/Unethical or ethical: Stock brokers who "churn" stocks, repeatedly buying and selling stocks to gain personal commissions without the client's best interests in mind? Illegal and Unethical
Illegal/unethical etc.: Selling legal products ( for example, heavily sugared cerial ) to minors when their effects may be harmful Legal and Unethical
Ethical/unethical legal etc.. Refusing to comply with the laws that mandate religious or racial discrimination Illegal and Ethical
gandian ethics practical wisdom
Moral Principle must be universalizable (Kant) One can will that everyone act according to it
Consistent with Kant on human autonomy and dignity One should not strive to benefit from one's interaction with others
Consistent with Kant on human autonomy and dignity It is wrong to treat others merely as tools to be used to attain a goal of maximum happiness
Consistent with Kant on human autonomy and dignity People must recognize others' capacity to give or withhold consent
Inconsistent with Kant on human autonomy and dignity Respect for human dignity requires people to act to maximize their pleasure and minimize their pain
Inconsistent with Kant on human autonomy and dignity True autonomy results from acting according to desires, without regard to moral permissability
Who were the sophists? A group of speakers paid to give instruction on wisdom. They became known as being able to act wise without being wise
Socrates,Aristotle and Plato,: Who taught who? Socrates taught Plato, and Plato taught Aristotle
What is Socrates called commonly? The father of Philosophy
When and where did Socrates live? 470-399 in Athens, Greece
Did Socrates write anything down? No, his student, Plato, kept a record of his teachings
What is the name of Socrates form of teaching? Socratic method-ask a series of questions to lead the other person(s) to the point wanted
Was Socrates a politician? No, though he was very involved in the Athens city government
What was the core of Socrates' philosophy? There is an absolute standard which applied to every man. By this standard all people would be judged after death in the afterlife.
What was Socrates belief about justness (morality)? The basics of right and wrong were larger than just one person, they also applied to society.
What did Socrates believe distinguished us humans from animals? The ability to reason and question our authorities and priciples and to rule our desires
What according to Socrates was worthless? the unexmamined life
How would one know how to be just according to Socrates? All sane people had the standard inately built into them. They knew and understood how to be virtuous. The unvirtuous were insane or ignorant. No one knowingly chooses to do wrong things.
Why was Socrates arrested? On charges of impiety and corrupting the youth
Who taught Plato? Socrates
When and where did Plato live? 427-347 BC in Athens
What did Plato found? The "Academy". Accreditted as the first college in history. Founded in 380 BC
What was taught at the "Academy"? Math, Philisopy, and Science
What is the comperable terms for "just" when referring to Plato's and Aristoles' teachings? moral
What was Plato's greatest fear? People would be swung to follow the sophist view
What book did he write to combat the sophist view point? The Republic
Why was the book The Republic written? to explain why a person should be just
What was Plato's two reasons to be just according to The Republic? 1. there are rewards and punishments in the afterlife resulting from our actions here 2. for its own sake
What was the four virtures of a perfect society? wisdom, courage, moderation, justice
What is the four virtures of a perfect person? wisdom, courage, moderation, justice
What did Plato associate with happiness? justice
What did Plato believe was the highest good for man? reason
What characteristics did Plato associate with the world of senses? unreal, fleeting, untrustworthy, evil
Why was reason the highest good for man? it was through reason you accessed the real world of ideas
What did Plato beleive happened when a person died? they were released from their body and from this world into a pure good one where they can study the true meanings and ideas. This was the reward of the just man
What was the name of the two worlds that Plato beleived existed? the World of Becoming and the World of Being
What was the world of Being? the true reality, a place of pure ideas. A world of forms
How did one access the World of Being? through reason and thought
What was the world of Becoming? This World, where everything is removed from reality.
What is a form according to Plato? The real thing from which we see shadows. The pure idea of something.
What happenes when a form in manifested? It is no longer reality because it can be seen, touched, tastes, felt, or smelt. It is an example of the form or idea
When were forms created? they never were, they existed before man and will after
What are the necessary qualities of forms? eternal, unchanging, unmoving, idivisible
gandian ethics practical wisdom
Jaina ethics non harming
hindu ethics self restraint or self sacrifice
christ against culture other worldly pietism
christ of culture casts gospel glow
christ & culture in paradox separates kind rule from stern public rule
christ above culture control over public life
christ tranforming culture influence but not control
Kant retributivism (eye for an eye)
Bentham utilitaianism (what makes the most people happy)
deontological duties to people or god
simple subjectivism moral language
ethical subjectivism moral opinions
natural law 1. everything in nature has a purpose 2.how things ought to be 3.based on reason
Earliest ethical writing Mesopotaiman legend of Gilamesh
Socrates rational; what you think is right, is right
sophists encouraged relativism and skepticism
Aristotle virtue ethics
utilitarianism judged on consequences, what makes the most people happy
State of Nature How philosophers think persons would naturally behave if there were no government threatening to punish them
Thomas Hobbes and the modern social contract theory people are naturally competitive and need government to contain their natural strive for security (preventing murders and such)
Basic argument (Hobbes) for an ethics based on a social contract Hobbes crucial first argument is that before society existed, there was ¬タワthe state of nature¬タン. held that this lawless state was a time of everyone for themselves.
Weaknesses of Utilitarianism 1. Utilitarianism runs into problems when sentiment is involved. 2. Doesn't provide enough support for individual's rights. 3. That happiness (etc) cannot be quantified or measured. 4. That we cannot calculate all the effects for all the individual
Strengths of Utilitarianism 1.The poor under-educated lower classes should count equally with the rich, educated upper class. 2.Bentham utilitarian theory came directly out of his social concerns.
Deontological Duty based. Focuses on your duties, whether they be to other people, to animals or to God.
What type of moral theory is Kant¬タルs Deontological
According to Kant morality is about? Following absolute rules without exception
According to Kant some of our basic duties are 1. Always tell the truth 2. Always keep you promises. 3. Never commit suicide.
Duty Something that you are required to do whether you want to or not
Good Will Kant believed it is the only thing that is totally and completely good without exception
Categorical Imperative A moral obligation that is imposed on us no matter the circumstances or our personal desires
Autonomy Being in control of your own life
Kant's two formulas of the catergorical imperative 1. Universally willing the maxim of your actions or taking the standpoint of everyone else 2. Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or that of another, always as an end and never as a means only.
Retributivism A theory of punishment that is best summed up by the phrase an eye for an eye.
Identify the major points critical of Kant's ethics 1. Consequentialism 2. Jeremy Bentham's Utilitarianism theory (attempt to create as much happiness in the world as possible)
Consequentialism Ethical theory that determines good or bad, right or wrong, based on the outcomes.
What are the difference between retributiviam (Kant) and Utilitarian (Betham) Kant believed an eye for an eye. Betham believes punishment is mischief and is a greater evil but is justifiable.
Moral Objectivism Belief that morality is universal, eternal and unchanging
Cultural relativism Belief that morality is relative to each individual culture, we can¬タルt make universal moral claims like ¬タワmurder is always wrong¬タン
Main premise of the cultural differences arguement for moral relativism Different societies have opposing moral standards
Shared cultural practice by all societies Caring for the young
Not-shared cultural practice by all societies Not eating beef
Shared cultural practice by all societies Not commiting murder
Shared cultural practice by all societies Telling the truth
Not-shared cultural practice by all societies Not commiting infanticide
Reflects theory of Cultural Relativism discourages intolerance of differing moral codes
Reflects theory of Cultural Relativism questions unreasoned assumptions about right and wrong
Reflects theory of Cultural Relativism encourages people to separate personal feelings from moral judgements
The essential revision to Simple Subjectivism offered by Emotivism Moral language is used to influence people's behavior
Psychological Egoist's interpretation of human motivation actions that appear to be altruistic are motivated by self-interest
Psychological Egoist's interpretation of human motivation actions are expressions of what makes one feel good
Psychological Egoism suggests motivates all human action people will do what they most want to do
Psychological Egoism suggests motivates all human action People will do the things necessary in order to feel good
Claim against Ethical Egoism unjustifyably claims that ones individual's interest are more important than the interests of other people
Claim against Ethical Egoism incorrectly assumes that all moral judgements are the products of logic
Claim against Ethical Egoism Cannot help people resolve conflics among their interests
Six values that all cultures have in common 1. Truthfulness 2. Prohibition of murder 3. Tolerable of other cultures 4. Mix of good and bad practices. 5. Welfare of cultural members. 6. Care of young.
Cultural relativism in terms of the cultural differences argument 1. Different societies have different moral codes 2. Moral code determines what is right within that society. 3. No objective standard can be used to judge one's societal code as better than another. 4. Moral code of our own society has no special
Ethical Subjectivism Moral judgments are nothing more than expressions of personal opinion
Psychological egoism 1. Theory of human nature, not an ethical theory. 2. Human nature to act out of self-interest.
Ethical egoism How we should behave
Hero stories Earliest known writings about heroes who exemplified virtues most admired
Legal codes Earliest know writings that defined acceptable and non-acceptable conduct and instructional formulations
Ethics in ancient Mesopotamia Value concepts can be discerned from commercial documents, law codes, wisdom sayings, hero stories and myths.
Royal Archives Earliest know writings provide the boasts of monarchs who conquered and often devastated neighboring territories.
Gigamesh, King of Uruk One of the earliest monarchs was said to be the product of the union of a high priest and the goddess Ninsun.
Work ethic One fulfils ones destiny through service and through fidelity to whatsoever becomes ones responsibility.
The law code of Semitic King Lipit Ishtar One of several early royal prescriptions recovered by archeologists. Each ruler declared that he was divinely chosen for office, thereby linking earthly rule to divine wishes.
The book of the Dead Earliest known writings contains a negative confession in which the deceased recited before a panel of 42 divine judges a list of 42 sins no committed.
Hebrew scriptures One of the earliest known writings ¬タモ Bible
School documents One of the earliest known writings
Aristotle's theory Involves a virtuous way of life by its relation to happiness
Key element of Aristotle(2) 1)highest happinessnot in the ethical virtues of active life, but contemplative or philosophic life of speculation, in which the dianoetic virtues of understanding, science and wisdom are exercise.2)Happiness not identical to pleasure
Virtue Moral excellence, or having the courage to do what is right.
Ethical egoism Each person ought to do whatever will best promote his or her own self-interest
Utilitarianism We ought to do whatever will promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
Advantage to Virtue Ethics moral motivation
Advantage to Virtue Ethics doubts about the "ideal" of impartiality
Disadvantages to Virtue Ethics an adequate theory of ethics must provide an understanding of moral character
Disadvantages to Virtue Ethics Incomplete - emphasizes moral virutes/neglects ideas of character
Disadvantages to Virtue Ethics All actions do not fit neatly into a virtue
Divine Command Theory Dilemma: Concept of morality is mysterious
Divine Command Theory Dilemma: The concept of morality makes God's commands arbitrary
Divine Command Theory Dilemma: This conception of morality provides the wrong reasons for moral principles
Divine Command Theory Supports the idea that God is a lawgiver, bud does not compel us to obey him
Divine Command Theory We are free agents
Divine Command Theory Supports that an act is right if God commands it, wrong if he forbids it
Theory of Natural Law Rests on an idea of what world should be like
Theory of Natural Law Idea that everything in nature has a purpose
Theory of Natural Law World is rational in order with values
Theory of Natural Law How things ought to be
Theory of Natural Law Laws of reason which we are able to grasp because God has made us rational beings
Social Contract Theory Thomas Hobbes
Social Contract Theory moral rules need to benefit social living
Social Contract Theory altruism/moral facts are key to understanding ethics: Not God
Social Contract Theory Morality consists in the set of rules, govererning behavior, that rational people will accept, on the condtion that others accept them as well
Advantages of the Social Contract Theory Morally binding rules are ones that facilitate harmonious social living
Advantages of the Social Contract Theory We agree to follow the rules because it is to our advantage to live in a society in which the rules are accepted
Advantages of the Social Contract Theory reciprocity
Advantages of the Social Contract Theory impartiality
Disadvantages to the Social Contract Theory we did not agree to it, our ancestors did, and we should not be excpected to uphold their contracts
Disadvantages to the Social Contract Theory acceptance of the rules is based on others agreeing to them
Utlitarianism - Strength the poor, undeucated should count equally with the rich
Utlitarianism - Strength theory came directly out of social concerns
Utilitariansim - Weakness runs into problems when sentimente is involved
Utilitariansim - Weakness Not enough support for individual rights
Utilitariansim - Weakness happiness cannot be measured
Utilitariansim - Weakness cannot calculate all the effects for all the people
Ethical egoism, strength one's duty is to promote one's self interest
Ethical egoism, strength not necessarily bad if actions benefit others
Ethical egoism, strength ought to do what is in our own best self interest
Ethical egoism, weakness endorses wicked actions, provided they benefit person who does them
Ethical egoism, weakness cannot handle conflict of interests
Ethical egoism, weakness logically inconsistent
Ethical egoism, weakness unacceptably arbirtrary
Moral philosophers who are skeptical about the primate origins of human morality argue that: non-human primates can not consciously and rationally select right from wrong comparisons between humans and other primates are inherently flawed non-human primates can not consciously and rationally select right from wrong
The Epic of Gilgamesh is: one of the earliest legal codes. a long poem from ancient Mesopotamia recounting legends and myths about a hero-king. guidelines for ethical behavior in ancient Egypt. none of the above a long poem from ancient Mesopotamia recounting legends and myths about a hero-king.
Who Said:The many are related to the One (Water) Thales
Who Said:The source of all matter is the indeterminate boundless; it is indestructible and has eternal motion Anaximander
Who Said:Air is the primary substance; differences in quality and quantity explain why things appear to be different Anaximenes
Who Said:All things are numbers; there is a numerical basis for all things possessing shape and size Developed the concept of form Pythagoras
Who Said:Fire basic element to all matter;condition of fire is change which explains why forms change;all things are in flux; change is unity in diversity Change is the product of God’s universal Reason;Reason as a universal law immanent in all things Heraclitus
Who Said:Change and diversity are an illusion. Matter is a single substance that is motionless and shaped in a sphere Who Said:Distinguishes between appearance and truth: appearance produces opinion, reality produces truth Parmenides
Who Said:The four paradoxes reveal that motion has no clear definition and is a relative concept Who Said:There is only one being, continuous, material and motionless Zeno (Parmenides’ student)
Who Said:The many are the changeless and eternal; objects can change but the particles of which they are made are changeless Empedocles
Who Said:Particles are made up of the four elements and their mixture accounts for the appearance of change Empedocles
Who Said:Nature’s two forces love and hate impact on the mixture of elements creating the cycle of Harmony to Discord. Empedocles
Who Said:Distinguished between Mind and matter; Mind is everywhere; it is separate from matter Anaxagoras
Who Said:All things consist of atoms which move in empty space Democritus and Leucippus
Who Said:Space is a receptacle which can be empty or full Democritus and Leucippus
Who Said:Atoms are indestructible, eternal and in constant motion Democritus and Leucippus
Who Said:Nature consists of only two things: space and atoms Democritus and Leucippus
Who Said: Two forms of knowledge: trueborn and illegitimate Democritus and Leucippus
The pre-Socratic philosophers were primarily concerned with: how the mind works the natural physical order of the world Socrates' philosophy ethical theory the natural physical order of the world
Which Greek thinker was known as the "laughing philosopher?" Democritus Leucippus Anaxagoras Heraclitus Democritus
"Man is the measure of all things" is a sentiment held by: Socrates Democritus the Sophists the Skeptics the Sophists
Which of the following beliefs is contrary to Socrates' approach to morality? Striving for good is the condition of all humans The soul is a person's conscious personality Morality is the matter of true knowledge Might makes right Might makes right
Plato believed that there were universals or essences, which he called the: Virtues Forms Unities Spheres Forms
According to Plato, our spirits have three parts. What are they? reason, spirit, and appetite temperance, spirit, and appetite reason, courage, and appetite reason, spirit, and beauty reason, spirit, and appetite
Plato's four main virtues: Courage Justice Temperance Wisdom
and Aristotle's additions to plato's four main virtues: Generosity Good Temper Friendship Self respect Honor Shame Pride Truthfulness
Aristotle's ethics are: influenced by his observations of nature based in part on Plato's theory a refutation of some of Plato's theory all of the above all of the above
Aristotle believed that humans should behave: based on the laws of nature based on Plato’s philosophy based on the Golden Mean based on the needs of the community based on the Golden Mean
This Greek philosophical school valued courage and acceptance of one's role in live. Stoicism
This Greek philosophical school argued that the greatest good comes from the pursuit of pleasure. Epicureanism
This Greek philosophical school maintained that human knowledge was limited and uncertain. Skepticism
This Greek philosophical school believed that salvation could be found in a mystical union with God. Neoplatonism
A School of philosophy that sees achieving pleasure and peace of mind as the greatest good Epicureanism
An Ethical approach that stresses moral character in contrast to moral actions Virtue Ethics
The hypothetical rulers of Plato's ideal city-state Philosopher Kings
The Essences of various objects or things ( in platonic thought) The Forms
The right or wrong of an action, decision or way of living Morality
A school of philosophy that questions the certainty of human knowledge and calls for continued inquiry after truth Skepticism
The Beliefe that knowledge is virtue and morality is the matter of true knowledge Socratic Philosophy
The Desirable middle ethical course between two extremes The Golden Mean
A School of philosophy that advocates control of one's passions and acceptance of one's destiny Stoicism
The study of the moral values and conduct of an individual group or culture Ethics
One the earliest legal codes, established by the king of Babylonia, offering guidelines for conduct and listing crimes and their various punishments Hammurabi's Code
An Egyption text that described the proper conduct needed for a happy afterlife Book of the Dead
This text includes an ethical and theological framework for life, including the Ten Commandments. A)Hammurabi's Code. B)the Torah. C)the Legend of Gilgamesh. D)the Book of the Dead. the Torah.
This early Greek philosopher stressed the value of "cheerfulness" and moderation: Democritus
The pre-Socratic philosophers are important because they: all of the above
The Sophists argued for a philosophy based on: self-interest
Socrates believed that: All of the above.
Plato thought that if we practiced the virtues, we could achieve: Justice.
For Plato, a state would be just if it were ruled by: A king trained in moral philosophy.
Aristotle's ethics were founded on the: Golden Mean
Aristotle's list of virtues: includes Plato's four main virtues of Courage, Justice, Temperance and Wisdom.
This Greek school of philosophy maintained that the greatest good comes from the pursuit of pleasure. Epicureanism
Self-control and fortitude are a way of mastering destructive emotions, according to the ___________. Stoics
An Egyptian text that described the proper conduct needed for a happy afterlife is: The Book of the Dead
What is religion? An organized system of believes regarding the spirtual or metaphysical world, gernerally offering a moral code, and a philospohy of life.
Religions often provide their followers with a series of codified beliefs including: Sacred writings or texts, Worship practices, including important ceremonies and rituals, theology that seeks to explain the nature of god, the reasons for existence, the afterlife. Code of morality or religouse law.
the idea that morality is whatever God (or the gods) command. God's will becomes the foundation of ethics. Divine Command Theory
Advantage or Disadvantage of Divine Command Theory: It offers an objective metaphysical foundation for morality. Advantage
Advantage or Disadvantage of Divine Command Theory: It answers the question why be moral? ( To please god to avoid punishment, gain reward) Advantage
Advantage or Disadvantage of Divine Command Theory: It Requires God's Existence be accepted to give his commands authority, and/or that a given text or scripture be proven divine Dis-advantage
It allows for the possiblity of abhorrent acts because divine command theory is an abitrary morality, bases solely on Gods'commands ( and what if God commands torture? ) Dis-advantage
It encorages self-sacrifice, which might otherwise not occur, in response to God's commands. Advantage
It is not the only source of morality (people choose other theories or approaches ) which suggessts that morality is not exclusively what God wills Dis Advantage
Divine Command Theory states that: God (or gods) determine(s) what is morally right and wrong Moral law is based on human tradition Moral law is based on rational, universal principles Moral law must be founded on a monotheistic basis God (or gods) determine(s) what is morally right and wrong
Which is NOT considered an advantage of Divine Command Theory? It offers an objective standard for morality It encourages self-sacrifice It depends on believing in God or accepting an inerrant sacred text It provides a reason for morality It depends on believing in God or accepting an inerrant sacred text
___________________ is the belief that a soul can be reborn into a new body after death. Karma Syncretism Reincarnation Agamas Reincarnation
A ___________________religion melds and fuses beliefs from other religious traditions into its own theology and ethics. syncretic mystical monotheistic none of the above syncretic
What are the three parts of Natural Law. Everything in nature exists for Reason How Things Are and How they ought to be Acceptance of Reason as God-Given and Part of the natural law
A System where God's will becomes the foundation of Morality The Divine command Theory
A System based on Universal laws and principles found in the natural order from which the norms of all human behavior must be derived Natural Law
A confucian Guide to proper human behavior Five Great Relationships
Buddhist Sacred Writings Muhayana sutras
A Belief of many eastern religions that our soul lives Multiple lifetimes Being reborn after death Reincarnation
Islamic Sacred Writing Qur'an
Islamic guide to proper human behavior Five Pillars
Rabbinic Religious Law Halakhah
Islamic Religious law Sharia
Religions that believe in one God Monetheism
Christian guide to proper behavior Golden Rule
Divine Moral imperatives given to the prophet moses The Ten Commandments
Natural law theory maintains: A)The world is inherently rational and there is a natural order to things. B)The world is inherently irrational. C)Humans can not understand the reasoning behind natural law. D)Chaos theory allows us to fashion moral l The world is inherently rational and there is a natural order to things.
One problem with Divine Command Theory is that: A)because it is arbitrary, it could allow for abhorrent commands. B)it provides objective standards for morality. C)it encourages believers to practice what they preach. D)all of the above. because it is arbitrary, it could allow for abhorrent commands.
Monotheistic religions believe in: A)heaven and hell. B)angels and demons. C)one God. D)all of the above. one God.
The Catholic church relies on _____________ for standards of behavior: A)sharia law. B)canon law. C)halakhah law. D)None of the above. canon law.
Eastern religions differ from Western religions because: A)there are no real moral rules. B)they are ruled by superstition. C)there often is no overseeing organized hierarchy. D)they have few sacred texts as guides to moral behav there often is no overseeing organized hierarchy.
religions view abortion immoral A)believe it violates God's commandment against killing. B)believe that it is inconsistent with natural law. C)believe a woman's right to choose is more important. D)they believe a woman's right to privacy comes firs they believe it violates God's commandment against killing.
The Confucian guide to proper human behavior is called: A)the Five Pillars. B)the Five Commandments. C)the Five Great Relationships. D)the Five Steps to Enlightenment. the Five Great Relationships.
The most sacred holy text for Islam is: A)the Torah. B)the Five Classics. C)the New Testament. D)the Qur'an. the Qur'an.
The belief of many Eastern religions that our soul lives multiple lifetimes, being reborn after death, is called: A)karma. B)reincarnation. C)redemption. D)resurrection. reincarnation.
Buddhism and Jainism share the belief that: A)there are many gods. B)there is no God. C)there is rebirth and karma. D)ancestors should be venerated. there is no God.
One of the world's oldest religions is: A)Ghandianism. B)Islam. C)Christianity. D)Hinduism. Hinduism.
religious see economic inequality as immoral: A)not fair that some have more than others. B)runs counter to Golden Rule divine notion of universal brotherhood and justice. C)runs counter to human reason. D)encourages greed and discourages charity. it runs counter to the Golden Rule and the divine notion of universal brotherhood and justice.
Under Social Contract Theory, rulers serve: by the consent of the governed by the will of God by natural selection by accumulating power by the consent of the governed
Social Contract Theory is based on: the greatest good for the greatest number divine law the idea of reciprocity natural law the idea of reciprocity
Strength or Weakness of Social Contract: Constructs moral rules for harmonious living Strength
Strength or Weakness of social contract:No clear or consistent definition of what is a moral rule or law Weakness
Strength or Weakness of social contract: Constructs moral rules that are in our best interests to follow, which is an added benefit Strength
Strength or Weakness of Social Contract: Rational people will not create rules that are too difficult or impossible to live by Strength
Strength or Weakness of a social contract: Does not resolve the question as to how much are we bound by laws of society Weakness
Strength or Weakness of a social contract: Allows people to live together in a moral world of limited altruism Strength
Strength or Weakness of a social contract: Does not address moral claims of those outside the social contract (for example, infants, mentally impaired people, animals) Weakness
What is Empiricism? is a philosophical doctrine that says all knowledge is derived from our senses.
Who Believed: - The scope of our knowledge is limited by our perceptions and our reason - Ideas do not have reality John Locke
who Believed: - There is an absolute existence of unthinking things George Berkeley
Who Believed: - Brings empiricism to its purest form - Impressions are necessary to ideas - All ideas are associated with each other - Our thinking cannot extend beyond our immediate senses David Hume
Who Believed: - Morality must be demonstrable - It is based on pleasure or pain - Moral good and evil represent the conformity or disagreement of our voluntary actions to law John Locke
who Believed: - Three kinds of law: law of opinion (happiness); civic law (virtue); divine law (law of moral rectitude) - We can know divine law through reason or revelation John Locke
Who Believed: - Argues proof of God and that insights we have come through Him - God's order of the world comes to us through our perceptions George Berkeley
Who Believed: - Moral judgments are formed through feelings more than reason - Virtue and vice exist through our feelings, not in the actions themselves David Hume
This British philosopher argued that we can know divine law through reason or revelation. John Locke David Hume George Berkeley Thomas Hobbes John Locke
This British philosopher argued that everything that exists in our minds has to have an outside reality. John Locke John Milton George Berkeley Thomas Hobbes George Berkeley
What is Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is the ethical theory constructed around the reasoning that the greatest good for the greatest number is the only criterion for creating morality.
John Stuart Mill's refinement of Utilitarianism focused on the idea of: the quality of happiness the quantity of happiness achieving God's divine will knowledge derived from science the quality of happiness
That metaphysical speculation held no validity was a position held by: John Stuart Mill Auguste Comte Jeremy Bentham John Locke Auguste Comte
Why is the following an objection to Utilitarian Ethics: Utilitarianism wrongly elevates pleasure above other values. Maximizing pleasure should not be the overriding value in human existence.
Why is the following an Objection of Utilitarian Ethics: Utilitarianism ignores distributive justice. Utilitarianism doesn't necessarily distribute happiness to those who "deserve" to be happy, or to all in a society.
Why is the following an Objection of utilitarian Ethics: Utilitarianism wrongly assumes that ends justify the means. Utilitarianism would allow for immoral actions (the means) in order to achieve the Greatest Good.
Why is the following an Objection to Utilitarian ethics: Utilitarianism requires too much calculation. It is impractical to calculate the utility of every option and outcome as Utilitarianism would require.
A philosphical approach that establishes government and a society's moral code by consent. Social Contract Theory
A Measurement of the utility and potential of happiness of given actions Hedonic Calculus
A Philosophical Approach that says all knowlege is derived from our senses Empiricism
Genuin knowledge is acquired only by science and that metaphysical speculation has no validity Positivism
The Greatest good for the Greatest number is the criterion for morality Utilitarianism
British philosopher largely responsible for Social Contract Theory Thomas Hobbes
A philosphical Approach that says Morality should be judged by outcomes Consequentialism
British Philospher largely responsible for utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham
Social Contract Theory is based on: people giving up some of their natural rights to a government in exchange for social order.
Which of the following is likely to be used as an argument against abortion and the death penalty? A)The act benefits people B)Slippery slope argument. C)Sanctity of life. D)Greatest good for greatest number of people. Sanctity of life.
Rational people will not create rules that are too difficult or impossible to live by is a tenet of: A)Utilitarianism B)Empiricism C)Social Contract Theory D)Divine Command Theory Social Contract Theory
Which of the following is not one of the three kinds of laws outlined by John Locke? A)Law of opinion. B)Civic law. C)Divine law. D)Natural law. Natural law.
Empiricism maintains that: A)humans are born with innate knowledge. B)humans are not born with innate knowledge. C)humans should follow divine rules. D)human reason is unlimited. humans are not born with innate knowledge.
David Hume argued: )moral judgments are formed through feelings more than reason. B)moral judgments are formed through reason more than feelings. C)certain moral actions contain the essence of goodness. D)certain moral actions contain the essence of e moral judgments are formed through feelings more than reason.
Utilitarianism is consequentialist moral philosophy becaus: judges morality on the basis of the means, not the ends. judges morality on the basis of the ends, not the means. is based on absolute rules. establishes strict definitions of universal moral it judges morality on the basis of the ends, not the means.
This was an attempt to measure and evaluate the utility of any moral action. A)Comte's Positivism. B)Bentham's Hedonic Calculus. C)Mill's notion of "higher happiness." D)Consequentialism. Bentham's Hedonic Calculus.
Comte's Positivism relied on: A)the greater good principle. B)scientific knowledge. C)revealed truth. D)moral reasoning. scientific knowledge.
Critics of Utilitarianism argue: A)Maximizing pleasure should not be the overriding value in human existence. B)is impractical to calculate the utility of every option and outcome as Utilitarianism requires. C)ignores distributive justice. D)All abo All of the above
the <blank> you have a desire to do or have something.In order to achieve the desire you have a series of oughts: non-moral actions that will get you what you wish to achieve.is not necessary for you to will that everyone does or desires what you desire. hypothetical imperative
The hypothetical imperative is: a moral law based on desire is understood through reason is about conflict based on desire
According to Kant, the categorical imperative: is something every rational person should accept tells us if a particular action is morally permissible is to be willed as an act for everyone all of the above all of the above
<blank> allow us to be moral agents whose conduct is guided by universal laws. Kant's rigidity on the universal law against lying suggests that he believes that any variation from this framework of <Blank> would harm his system of ethics and morality. Absolute Rules
Kant’s reason for making an absolute rule against lying is: lying harms one’s dignity as a human being lying is self-defeating it’s impossible to know the consequences of actions all the above all the above
philosophers argue that absolute rules do not work because: if two rules apply In situation they conflict following the rule can sometimes bring about bad consequences is implausible to allow no exceptions to the rule is hard to use them with consist it is implausible to allow no exceptions to the rule
An absolute and universal moral demand or obligation founded on reasoning Categorical Imperative
An Action conditioned on some goal or desire Hypothetical Imperative
A formal Principle Maxim
Ethical theories that maintain that the moral rightness or wrongness of an action depends on its intrinsic qualities and not on its practical consequences Deontological Ethics
An Action that people are required to perform; the practical content of a moral obligation Duty
The applicability of a moral rule to all Universalizability
A moral demaind or obligation with no exceptions; actions based on this rule are always right (or wrong ) independently of any further considerations Absolute Rule
The unconditioned esteem and respect that all people should receive just in virtue of being human and rational Dignity
Kant believes that the guilty will their punishments through: Universal law Reason Dignity The Hypothetical Imperative Universal law
Bentham’s Utilitarian theory of punishment primarily seeks to: apply justice benefit society destroy evil improve the lives of prisoners benefit society
According to Kant a duty-driven action is more valuable than acts performed through: sympathy and compassion inclination virtue all of the above all of the above
Kant’s ethics primarily concern: art and culture human self determination and freedom human manners and tastes the consequences of moral actions human self determination and freedom
According to Kant, the categorical imperative is: A)whatever you choose to do. B)a universal law. C)a way of finding out what's best for yourself. D)a maxim. a universal law.
Act according to that maxim by which you be universal law is: about desiring something and working toward it. an idea that can be used to better other's behavior. a way of analyzing what is a moral obligation. a definition of the hypothetical imperat a way of analyzing what is a moral obligation.
In Kant's view, being a moral agent means: A)asking, "How does this concern me?" before deciding to act. B)lying only when absolutely necessary. C)guiding your conduct by universal laws. D)living by the rules of your church. guiding your conduct by universal laws.
reason that somephilosophers argue that rules need not be regarded as absolute is: A)We can violate them for good reasons that we all accept. B)Consistency is irrational and humans are irrational. C)We can just agree to disagree. D)None of the abov We can violate them for good reasons that we all accept.
Kant associates dignity with: A)The categorical imperative. B)The value of reason. C)The hypothetical imperative. D)Absolute rules. The value of reason.
For Kant, moral goodness at the highest level exists if: A)We act in a dignified way. B)We obey our religion's rules. C)We consciously act from good will. D)We value means above all else. We consciously act from good will.
Kant's theory of punishment is primarily concerned with: A)manipulation and rehabilitation B)justice and morality C)welfare and society D)good versus evil justice and morality
From a Kantian perspective, putting a murderer to death: A)harms human dignity B)respects human dignity C)helps society D)harms society respects human dignity
Absolute rules have been criticized, in part, because they: A)can be harmful to animals. B)do not address negative consequences of an action. C)are impossible follow. D)are not really moral. do not address negative consequences of an action.
According to Kant's critics, universal laws work: A)inconsistently. B)consistently. C)rarely. D)none of the above inconsistently.
_____ is the view that morality (behavior which is right and wrong) is culturally determined. Cultural Relativism
Cultural Relativism wrongly accepts cultural moral norms uncritically. Critisism
Cultural Relativism values tolerance and the acceptance of cultural differences more than the happiness and welfare of people. Criticism
Cultural Relativism ignores the role of moral development in societies (and people). Criticism
Cultural Relativism prematurely rejects the possibility that there are universal rights, including basic human rights, that should apply to all cultures. Criticism
Would a Cultural Relativist say this? "No society should ever accept murder." No, This statement does not align with Cultural Relativism, as it suggests there are univeral moral standards.
Would a Cultural Relativist say this? "We should pay our taxes, obey the law, and adhere to the morality of our people." Yes, this statement aligns with Cultural Relativism, which suggests we should conform to the moral norms of the society we are living in.
Would a Cultural Relativist say this? "When in Rome do, as the Romans do." Yes, this statement aligns with Cultural Relativism.
Would a Cultural Relativist say this? "Isn't it time to ban bullfighting, a "sport" where an innocent life is sacrificed for the entertainment of humans?" No, This statement differs from Cultural Relativism, as it judges a society's moral practice.
Would a Cultural Relativist say this? "I personally oppose polygamy, but it's a facet of Arab culture." Yes, this statement does align with Cultural Relativism.
Would a Cultural Relativist say this? "What look like differences in morality from society to society really aren't--the Golden Rule, written or unwritten, has always been the basis for human ethics." yes, This statement does not align with Cultural Relativism, as it suggests there are universal moral standards.
James Rachels argues that universal values allow us to: judge the moral codes of other cultures change the moral codes of other cultures identify the cultural variables in a given society all of the above judge the moral codes of other cultures
Cultural Relativists would reject the Un's Universal Declaration of Human Rights Because: is intolerant of existing cultural practices claims there is one moral standard for all cultures claims there is an objective standard for morality all Above all of the above
<Blank> denies there are objective moral truths, instead holding that we only have feelings about acts and behavior. Consequently, this theory holds, our feelings define our moral judgments. Ethical Subjectivism
agrees that there are no objective moral truths; it further argues that when we make moral or ethical judgments we are expressing our own attitudes and looking to influence and change the moral actions of others. Emotivism
A follower of Ethical Subjectivism would argue that "X is right" really means: "X is socially acceptable" "X is a universally-held moral principle" "I like X" "X is reasonable" "I like X
One difference between Emotivism and Ethical Subjectivism is that: Emotivism endorses objective moral truths Emotivism accepts univeral values Emotivism focuses on attitudes, not feelings None of the above Emotivism focuses on attitudes, not feelings
What is the philosophic belief approach that acting in your own self-interest is moral. Ethical Egoism is the philosophic belief approach that acting in your own self-interest is moral.
Psychological Egoism sees: acting in self-interest as moral acting in self-interest as a natural human instinct acting in self-interest as a logical condition all of the above acting in self-interest as a natural human instinct
Ethical Egoism rejects: Altruism Resolving differences through compromise The Principle of Equal Treatment all of the above all of the above
The Theory that morality is culturally determined Cultural Relativism
The Theory that it is natural to act exclusively in your own self-interest Psychological Egoism
The Theory that there are no objective moral truths, only feelings about moral behavior Ethical Subjectivism
Acting for the sake of others, regardless of self. altruism
The theory that moral or ethical judgments are expression of attitudes not moral truths. Emotivism
States that people should be treated in the same way unless there is a relevant difference between them. Principle of equal treatment
The theory that acting in your own self interest is moral. Ethical Egoism
Cultural relativism argues it is arrogant to question another culture's morality because: there is no moral rule that is universally correct. there are moral laws that are universally correct. some moral codes are better than others. all of the ab there is no moral rule or law that is universally correct.
That rules against murder and lying appear across human cultures is an argument for: A)Cultural Relativism. B)universal moral values. C)cultural variations. D)contingent moral values. universal moral values.
Ethical Subjectivism maintains that ____________ define our moral judgments, not objective moral truths. A)attitudes B)behaviors C)feelings D)universal values feelings
Which of the statements about Emotivism is true? A)maintains that there are objective moral truths. B)argues that feelings determine our moral judgments. C)looks to universal values for moral truth. D)argues that attitudes determine our moral judgmen Emotivism argues that attitudes determine our moral judgments.
This philosopher articulated the rationale for Ethical Egoism. A)David Hume B)James Rachels C)Ayn Rand D)Immanuel Kant Ayn Rand
According to James Rachels, a flaw of Ethical Egoism is that it violates: A)the Golden Mean. B)the Principle of Equal Treatment. C)Divine Command Theory. D)None of the above. the Principle of Equal Treatment.
philosophers reason that we should be allowed to judge other cultures because: all cultures share some basic moral values, suggesting a standard for establishing universal morality.
Some scholars believe that Ethical Egoism is the foundation for _____________, a political philosophy which emphasizes personal liberty above collective social interests. A)altruism B)hedonism C)libertarianism D)socialism libertarianism
A major flaw of Ethical Subjectivism: A)it stems from the thinking of Scottish philosopher David Hume. B)it maintains that our feelings define our moral judgments. C)it fails to establish some objective standard for judging moral correctness. D)nonea it fails to establish some objective standard for judging moral correctness.
The _______________ states that people should be treated in the same way unless there is a relevant difference between them. A)Golden Rule B)Golden Mean C)Principle of Equal Outcomes D)Principle of Equal Treatment Principle of Equal Treatment
In James Rachels' ethical theory, humans become _____________ in a __________________. A)moral agents; immoral society B)moral agents; moral community C)ethicists; moral community D)moral agents; ethical community moral agents; moral community
Created by: Dave Lowery Dave Lowery on 2007-03-04



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