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PSYCHOLOGY

CHAPTER 7 - Learning

QuestionAnswer
learning a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior resulting from experience
classical conditioning a form of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after being associated with a stimulus that already elicits that response
unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in classical conditioning, a stimulus that automatically elicts a particular unconditioned response
unconditioned response (UCR) in classical conditioning, an unlearned, automatic response to a particular unconditioned stimulus
conditioned stimulus (CS) in classical conditioning , a neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a particular conditioned response after being paired with a particular unconditioned stimulus that already elicits that response
conditioned response (CR) in classical conditioning, the learned response given to a particular conditioned stimulus
higher-order conditioning in classical conditioning, the establishment of a conditioned response to a neutral stimulus that has been paired with an existing conditioned stimulus
sematic conditioning in classical conditioning, the use of words as conditioned stimuli
stimulus generalization in classical conditioning, giving a conditioned response to stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus
stimulus discrimination in classical conditioning, giving a conditioned stimulus but not to stimuli similar to it
extinction in classical conditioning, the gradual disappearance of the condition response when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without being paired with the unconditioned stimulus
spontaneous recovery in classical conditioning, the reappearance after a period of time of a condiioned response that has been subjected to extinction
conditioned taste aversion a taste averson induced by pairing a taste with gastrointestinal distress
law of effect edward thorndike's principle that a behavior followed by a satisfying state of affairs is strengthened and a behavior followed by an annoying state of affairs is weakened
instrumental conditioning a form of learning in which a behavior becomes more or less probable, depending on its consequences
operant conditioning b.f.skinner's term for instrumental conditioning, a form of learning in which a behavior becomes more or less probable, depending on its consequences
skinner box an enclosure that contains a bar or key that can be pressed to obtain food or water and that is used to study operant conditioning in rats, pigeons, or other small animals
behavioral contingencies relationships between behaviors and their consequences, such as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, extinction, and punishment
positive reinforcement in operant conditioning an increase in the probability of a behavior that is followed by a desirable consequences
premack principle the principle that a more probable behavior can be used as a reinforcer for a less probable one
primary reinforcer in operant conditioning, an unlearned reinforcer that satisfies a biological need such as food, water, or oxygen
secondary reinforcer in operant conditioning, a neurtral stimulus that becomes reinforcing after being associated with a primary reinforcer
discriminative stimulus in operant conditioning, a stimulus that indicates the likelihood that a particular response will be reinforced
shaping an operant conditioning procedure that involves the positive reinforcement of successive approximations of an initially improbable behavior to eventually bring about that behavior
chaining an operant conditioning procedure used to establish a desired sequence of behaviors by positively reinforcing each behavior in the sequence
continuous schedule of reinforcement a schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement for each instance of a desired response
partial schedule of reinforcement a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces some, but not all, instances of a desired response
fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement a partial schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement after a set number of desired responses
variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement a partial schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement after varying, unpredictable numbers of desired responses
fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement a partial schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement for the first desired response made after a set length of time
variable-interval schedule of reinforcement a partial schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement for the first desired response made after varying, unpredictable lengths of time
negative reinforcement in operant conditioning, an increase in the probability of a behavior that is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus
escape learning learning to perform a behavior that terminates an aversive stimulus, as in negative reinforcement
avoidance learning learning to prevent the occurence of an aversive stimulus by giving an appropriate response to a warning stimulus
extinction in operant conditioning, the gradual disappearance of a response that is no longer followed by a reinforcer
spontaneous recovery in operant conditioning, the reappearance after a period of time of a behavior that has been subjected to extinction
punishment in operant conditioning, the process by which an aversive stimulus decreases the probability of a response that precedes it
token economy an operant conditioning procedure that uses tokens as positive reinforcers in programs designed to promote desirable behaviors, with the tokens later used to purchase desired items or privileges
programmed instruction a step-by-step approach, based on operant conditioning, in which the learner proceeds at his or her own pace through more and more advanced material and receives immediate knowledge of the results of each response
computer-assisted instruction the use of computer programs to provide programmed instruction
learned helplessness a feeling of futility caused by the belief that one has little or no control over events in one's life, which can make one stop trying and become depressed
biofeedback a form of operant conditioning that enables an individual 2 learn 2 control a normally involuntary physiological process or 2 gain better control of a normally voluntary 1 when provided w/ visual/auditory information indicating the state of that response
instinctive drift the reversion of animals to behaviors characteristics of their species even when being reinforced for performing other behaviors
behavioral preparedness the degree to which members of species are innately prepared to learn particular behaviors
blocking the process by which a neutral stimulus paired with a conditioned stimulus that already elicits a conditioned stimulus that already elicits a conditioned response fails to become a conditioned stimulus
latent learning learning that occurs without the reinforcement of overt behavior
observational learning learning produced by observing the consequences that others recieve for performing particular behaviors
social learning theory a theory of learning that assumes that people learn behaviors mainly through observation and mental processing of information
Created by: Jessica C on 2007-03-04



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