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Endocrine and Heart

A & P II

The PINEAL GLAND is attached to the roof of the third ventricle of the brain at the midline.
The PINEAL GLAND produces MELATONIN, which contributes to setting the body’s biological clock.
The ADRENAL MEDULLA secretes EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, which contribute to the fight-or-flight response.
When is EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE released These are released under stress by direct innervation from the ANS.
The ADRENAL GLANDS are located where lie atop each kidney and consist of an outer CORTEX (ZONA GLOMERULOSA/FASCICULATA/RETICULARIS) and inner MEDULLA.
The CORTEX is subdivided into three zones... The OUTER ZONE secretes hormones classified as MINERALCORTICOIDS, the MIDDLE ZONE secretes hormones classified as GLUCOCORTICOIDS, and the INNER ZONE secretes ANDROGENS.
The MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE... increase sodium and water reabsorption, decrease potassium reabsorption, and regulate sodium and potassium levels in the blood.
The GLUCOCORTICOIDS such as CORTISOL... promote the metabolism of proteins and triglycerides, and serve as anti-inflammatory agents, and depress the immune response
The BETA CELLS secrete INSULIN, which functions to decrease blood levels of glucose and increase tissue utilization of glucose. Levels of glucose in the blood control secretion of insulin.
The ALPHA CELLS secrete GLUCAGON, which functions to increase the blood level of glucose. Glucose levels in the blood control its secretion.
Pancreas Histologically, it is comprised of patches of cells called the PANCREATIC ISLETS OR ISLET OF LANGERHANS
The PANCREAS is a flattened organ posterior and inferior to the stomach.
THE PANCREAS is both an exocrine and endocrine organ.
The PARATHYROIDS are located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland. There is usually a pair on either side.
The parathyroids secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE (PTH).
PARATHYROID HORMONE regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium levels and decreasing blood phosphate levels, by stimulating osteoclasts. Calcium levels in the blood control the secretion of PTH.
The THYROID GLAND is located below to the larynx (voice box) and contains two lobes.
The thyroid consists of follicles composed of FOLLICULAR CELLS, which secrete thyroid hormones THYROXINE (T-4) AND TRIIODOTHYRONINE (T-3), and PARAFOLLICULAR CELLS, which secrete CALCITONIN (CT).
THYROID HORMONES regulate the basal metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, cellular metabolism, and development. Secretion is mediated through the action of both the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary.
CALCITONIN (CT) functions to lower blood levels of calcium and phosphate by depositing mineral salts into bone tissue, via the inhibition of osteoclasts. The level of calcium in the blood controls secretion of
The POSTERIOR PITUITARY stores two hormones, OXYTOCIN (OT) and ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH), which are made in the hypothalamus.
OXYTOCIN stimulates the contraction of the uterus and the ejection of milk (“letdown”).
ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE also called vasopressin, stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys.
The PITUITARY GLAND sits in the sphenoid bone (sella turcica). It is divided into the ANTERIOR PITUITARY and POSTERIOR PITUITARY.
The ANTERIOR PITUITARY releases hormones that regulate a wide range of bodily activities and are activated or inhibited by regulating hormones released by the hypothalamus.
Seven hormones can be released by the anterior pituitary with proper stimulation from the hypothalamus. These are human growth hormone (hGH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH).
HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE (hGH) stimulates body growth by acting on skeletal muscles and bone tissue.
THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH) stimulates the synthesis and secretion of hormones from the thyroid gland and its release is controlled by RH from the hypothalamus.
FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH) functions to control the development and production of sperm in the male and the development of oocytes in the female.
LUTEINIZING HORMONE (LH) together with FSH stimulates ovulation. It also stimulates the secretion of PROGESTERONE and ESTROGENS which prepares the uterus for implantation.
PROLACTIN (PRL) together with other female hormones initiates milk secretion from the mammaries.
ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE (ACTH) controls the production and secretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex.
MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONE (MSH) has an unknown role in humans, but administration of this hormone will cause darkening of the skin.
HORMONES are released on demand. The amount of hormone released by a gland is determined by the body’s need for the hormone at any given time.
Most hormones are released on demand in short bursts, with little or no secretion between bursts. A NEGATIVE FEEDBACK CONTROL MECHANISM prevents the overproduction or underproduction of a hormone.
Hormone secretions are controlled by (1) signals from the nervous system, (2) chemical changes in the blood, and (3) other hormones.
Created by: lexitheberge