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History 101 civ

Study guide for exam 1

Define Society Group of people organized in some fashion.
Define Culture Value system of society, ideas and beliefs of that society
Define Civilization A society in which many people will live in towns or cities, they build monumental structures, have writing system through which they communicate, mastered the art of smelting metal.
Where was Mesopotamia located Between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. (Modern day Iraq)
River Valley Civilizations: Mesopotamia. Egypt-Nile river India-Indus & Ganges River China- Yellow River
Define Pre-historic (Pre-literate) time before the invention of writing.
Define Artifacts Left behind tools, weapons, paintings, pottery and fossils.
Define Bipedalism When humans started to stand up and walk on 2 feet
What is the date that was considered the beginning of Civ. 3500 BC
What did most cultures include? A system of justice: gov't with some democratic traits, extremely strong religious influence, very superstitious.
Define Animism belief that all things in nature, living and non-living, have a spirit.
Define Paleolithic Old stone age, 400,000-7,000 BC
Greatest paleolithic achievement? Art-animated, realistic paintings.
Cave paintings were found where? Northern spain, SW of france.
Define Mesolithic age Transitional period. 10,000 BC. Adapt to changes, live along coast, fishing.
Define Neolithic age New stone age. Learning to chip shaped stones to have a more effective tool. A.k.a. Neolithic revolution.
Mount Carmel Caves/Palestine Lived in caves, known as narufians. oldest city-Jericho.
The city of Jarmo Tiny village, foothills in mountain. Modern day northern Iraq, 6000 BC. Pop 200-300. Place where food production began.
Mesopotamia modern day Iraq. between Euphrates and Tigris rivers. Earliest writing, cities, laws. agriculture. Babylon. Site of garden of Eden (northern tip of Kuwait).Dominates old testament of the bible. influenced by Jewish culture.
City of Ur in Mesopotamia Birthplace of Abraham. City of half a million people.
People of Sumer Sumerians
Sumer Begins 3000 BC. First to have writing system. Irrigation systems.Fertile lands. Swampy, hard to grow crops. Social classes develop. Very superstitious.
Arbitrary gods Force of nature
City states city and a nation all in one, independent, un-united.
Who were the Presley class Rulers
Ziggurat City states of Ur dominated by a temple.
Hierarchy (term economy) Ruled by Presley class. Lower level of ziggurat-stables,grain storage, how people pay taxes. Priests in charge of it.
Deities symbols of immortality
Describe Mesopotamian religion religion tied to agriculture. Afraid of their gods.
Enlil God of wind or whirlwind.
Enki God of water.
Ishtar Female goddess of fertility (crops).
Sumerian contributions Invented potters wheel, wagon wheel,plow, sailboat, number system. learned to smelt metal. 1st prescriptions. most important: writing system.
What was the first kind of writing Sumerians developed? pictorial. land deeds
Cunei form wedge shape on wet clay. form of writing for next 2000 years.
Epic of Gilgamesh legendary king of Sumer. Idea that man is looking for immortality. sexual theme. Snake(serpent)-villain. oldest intact epic.
Patesi priest.
Ensi prime minister.
Lugals Big man, military man, becomes most powerful to take over everything.
Sargon I Concurs Sumer, 1st monarch. Lugal for Akkad. Burned and destroyed city of Ur. 200 years of chaos, no unity.
Hammurabi Amarite prince, re-unifies. Creates a great empire. Capital at Babylon (mid-euphrates river), people called Babylonians.
Hammurabi law code greatest contribution, engraved on stela stone. the law differs according to the social status of the offender. the punishment designed to fit the crime. over 200 laws.
Ancient Egypt location Nile river
Nomes 42, egypt divided into political units
2 kingdoms lower egypt-20 nomes upper egypt 22 nomes
menes or narmes unification of egypt
Old kingdom/pyramid age 2700-2200 bc dyn 3-6 time of absolute pharaohs absolute power, great building Capital-memphis (delta area)
founder of dynasty 3 zoser or djoser-divine ruler for 50 yrs. ist permsnent monument constructed for zoser, built at saccara.
what is the oldest egyptian monument great stepped tomb (modern day kairo)
who was Zoser's vizier? Imhotep, an architect, physician. "right hand man"
Mastaba Rectangular stepped tomb.
Pyramids Indicate the strength of a powerful agriculture economy. belief in after-life of pharoah
Why did the old kingdom decline? depleted treasury because of pyramids, bankrupt.
Middle Kingdom (Feudal Age) Pharoah shares power with nobility (nomarks) decentralization no longer absolute Share power w new military aristocracy Pharoah is considered God. Change in authory, internal warfare. Bankrupt.
Mentohotep IV (Akhenaton)dyn. 11 Most important pharoah of dyn 11, last. decided not to be buried in delta area. buried upper egypt @thebes.
Amonemhet dyn 12 highly organized, well administered. before death, son took over as coregent. buried down in thebes, becomes new center of worship, capital (valley of kings and queens). no more great pyramids. commoners begin to believe in immortality.
Amon-re Composite deity. new sun god. harsh, militaristic sun god. represents hot desert sun, militaristic time.
Hyksos area from palestine. invades egypt. brings the wheel, horse, metal tipped weapons. foreginers rule.
New kingdom building again. Pharaohs pretty sucessful. much larger not as powerful as old kingdom. external threars to egypt. incompetent pharaohs, incapable administrations. nomarks become more powerful. alot of religious problems. polytheistic. priests of amon re
Pharoah Ramses II decides to be great builder: karnak, luxor.introduces slavery. wants to build a city after him.
Indo-European Of or relating to the family of languages spoken over the greater part of Europe and Asia as far as northern India
Hittite Capital Hattusas
Hittite civ. Anatolia(Asia minor/turkey). militaristic civ. palaces, temples, royal library. borrowed from those who they conquered.
Old kingdom Hittite feudalism, lots of war. everything revolved around king-warrior chief. share power w fellow warriors. king made all sacrifices to god, may become deity after death. couldnt handle chaos.
Pankesh advisory body made up of all the great warriors.
Hittite new kingdom King telepimus creates it-creates a law code based on Hammurabi. loyal military. unified states. conquer. large beuracracy, big library, absolute kings-in charge of everything. pankosh becomes representative. production of iron. architecture is massive
King suppililiumus new kingdom stable growth. lots of development. expansion new kingdom goes to son after death, everything falls apart.
Gods Hittite Belief in many gods. female earth gods Mesopotamia, uranic gods-male sky gods. lighting, thunder.
teshub main sky god
Telepina missing god, slot to put any god in.
Ancient hebrews civ middle-eastern. Canaan
Pentateuch/Torah 1st 5 books of old testament, religious history
habiru biblical Hebrews
Abraham merchant, lived in Ur, started to migrate north along Euphrates river(age of patriarchs) long time to get to Canaan. first patriarch
Israelites. Abraham and descendants.
Moses brought up in royal kingdom. lead Hebrews out of Egypt. united under spiritual leadership of Moses.
Yahweh (Jehovah) single god worshiped by all Hebrew people. covenant.
Saul 1st king, good warrior, bad administrator. leader of all tribes.
King David unified Israel.
Solomon absolute ruler. great builder-temple of Jerusalem. after Solomon, Israel splits.
Contributions Hebrews belief in monotheism-1 god. Judaism: Islam, Christianity. old testament. law code-10 commandments.
Created by: 682638472