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A&P 2 - E1 - P5

A&P 2 - Exam 1 - Part 5 - Physiology, Venous Return

QuestionAnswer
Blood-pumping action of respirations and skeletal muscle contractions facilitate venous return by increasing pressure gradient between ______________and _______________. peripheral veins, vena cava
Blood-pumping action of ____________ and _____________ facilitate venous return by increasing pressure gradient between peripheral veins and vena cava. respirations, skeletal muscle contractions
Blood-pumping action of respirations and skeletal muscle contractions facilitate venous return by increasing ___________ between peripheral veins and vena cava. pressure gradient
Inspiration __________ the pressure gradient between peripheral and central veins by decreasing central venous pressure and increasing peripheral venous pressure increases
Inspiration increases the pressure gradient between peripheral and central veins by __________ central venous pressure and __________ peripheral venous pressure decreasing, increasing
____________ promote venous return by squeezing veins through a contracting muscle and milking the blood toward the heart. skeletal muscle contractions
Changes in ___________ change the amount of blood returned to the heart. total blood volume
Capillary exchange is governed by ____________ law of the capillaries. Starling's
____________ is governed by Starling's law of the capillaries. capillary exchange
At arterial end of capillary, outward ___________ pressure is strongest force; moves fluid out of ___________ and into ____________. hydrostatic, plasma, interstitial fluid
At venous end of capillary, inward ________ pressure is strongest force; moves fluid into _________ from _______. osmotic, plasma, interstitial fluid
_________ of fluid lost by plasma at arterial end is recovered. 90%
The ___________ system recovers fluid not recovered by capillary and returns it to the _________ before it is returned to the heart. lymphatic, venous blood
Mechanisms that change total blood volume most quickly are those that cause __________ to quickly move into or out of the __________. water, plasma
What does ADH stand for? anti diuretic hormone
_____________ decrease the amount of water lost by the body by increasing the amount of water that kidneys reabsorb from urine before the urine is excreted from the body. ADH mechanisms
ADH mechanisms are triggered by input from _____________ and ___________. baroreceptors, osmoreceptors
_______ released when blood pressure in kidney is low. renin
What is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and water (fluid) balance? renin-angiotensin system
The release of renin leads to increased secretion of ___________, which stimulates retention of __________, causing increased retention of water and an increase in _____________. aldosterone, sodium, blood volume
___________ is an intermediate compound that causes vasocontriction, which complements the volume-increasing effects of renin and promotes an increase in overall blood flow. angiotensin II
Angiotensin II is an intermediate compound that causes _________, which complements the volume-increasing effects of ___________ and promotes an increase in overall blood flow. vasoconstriction, renin
What does ANH stand for? atrial natriuretic
___________ adjusts venous return from an abnormally high level by promoting the loss of water from plasma, causing a decrease in blood volume; increases urine sodium loss, which causes water to follow osmotically. ANH mechanism
ANH mechanism adjusts venous return from an abnormally high level by promoting the loss of __________ from plasma, causing a ________ in blood volume; increases urine sodium loss, which causes water to follow ________________. water, decrease, osmotically
Arterial blood pressure is measured with the aid of a ___________ and ____________. sphygmomanometer, stethoscope
While measuring arterial blood pressure one must listen for __________ sounds as the pressure of the cuff is gradually _________. Korotkoff, decreased
___________ is the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls while the ventricles are _____________. systolic blood pressure, contracting
___________ is the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls when the ventricles are _____________. diastolic blood pressure, relaxed
What is the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure? pulse pressure
In ___________ bleeding blood escapes in spurts do to alternating increase and decrease of ___________. arterial, arterial blood pressure
In ___________ bleeding blood flows slowly and steadily due to low, practically constant, pressure. venous
What is the volume of blood circulating through the body per minute? minute volume
Minute volume is determined by the magnitude of ___________ and __________. blood pressure gradient, peripheral resistance
minute volume = pressure gradient + resistance Poiseuille's Law
What is Poiseuille's Law? minute volume = pressure gradient + resistance
Velocity of blood is governed by the physical principle that when a liquid flows from an area of one cross-sectional size to an area of larger size, its velocity _________ in the area with the larger cross section. decreases
Blood velocity is fastest in ________, slower in ___________ and slowest in ___________ because of a greater cross sectional area. arteries and veins, arterioles and venules, capillaries
The ________ is an alternate expansion and recoil of an artery. pulse
The pulse reveals important information regarding ________, ________ and _________. the cardiovascular system, blood vesssels, circulation
The physiological significance of the pulse is that _________ stores energy released during __________, conserving energy generated by the heart and maintaining relatively constant ______________. expansion, recoil, blood flow
Alternating increase and decrease of __________ in a vessel causes a _________. pressure, pulse
The elasticity of _________ walls allows walls to expand with increased pressure and recoil with decreased pressure, this causes a _________. arterial, pulse
Each pulse that starts with ___________ and proceeds as a wave of expansion throughout the arteries. ventricular contraction
The pulse wave generated by a ventricular contraction gradually dissipates, disappearing in the ____________. capillaries
A pulse can be felt wherever an artery lies near the surface and over a bone or other ___________. firm background
The __________ pulse is detectable only in large veins, most prominent near the __________. venous, heart
The venous pulse is not of __________. clinical importance
Blood flow shifts materials from place to place and redistributes ______ and _______. heat, pressure
Blood flow is vital to maintaining ____________ of the internal environment. homeostasis
Created by: K1N1V on 2011-09-18



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